Person:Armand du Plessis (1)

Armand Jean du Plessis, cardinal-duc de Richelieu et de Fronsac
b.9 Sep 1585
d.4 Dec 1642
  1. Nicole du Plessis-Richelieu
  2. Armand Jean du Plessis, cardinal-duc de Richelieu et de Fronsac1585 - 1642
Facts and Events
Name Armand Jean du Plessis, cardinal-duc de Richelieu et de Fronsac
Gender Male
Birth[1] 9 Sep 1585
Death[1] 4 Dec 1642
Reference Number? Q26702?

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Armand Jean du Plessis, Duke of Richelieu (; 9 September 1585 – 4 December 1642), known as Cardinal Richelieu, was a French clergyman and statesman. He was also known as l'Éminence rouge, or "the Red Eminence", a term derived from the title "Eminence" applied to cardinals, and the red robes they customarily wear.

Consecrated as a bishop in 1607, he was appointed Foreign Secretary in 1616. He continued to rise in both the Catholic Church and French government, becoming a cardinal in 1622, and chief minister to Louis XIII of France in 1624. He retained this office until his death in 1642, when he was succeeded by Cardinal Mazarin, whose career he had fostered.

Richelieu sought to consolidate royal power and by restraining the power of the nobility, he transformed France into a strong, centralized state. In foreign policy, his primary objective was to check the power of the Habsburg dynasty in Spain and Austria, and ensure French dominance in the Thirty Years' War that engulfed Europe. Despite suppressing French Protestants, he made alliances with Protestant states like the Kingdom of England and the Dutch Republic to achieve his goals. Though he was a powerful political figure, events such as the Day of the Dupes, or Journée des Dupes, show this power was still dependent on the king's confidence.

An alumnus of the University of Paris and headmaster of the College of Sorbonne, he renovated and extended the institution. He was famous for his patronage of the arts, and founded the Académie Française, the learned society responsible for matters pertaining to the French language. As an advocate for Samuel de Champlain and New France, he founded the Compagnie des Cent-Associés; he also negotiated the 1632 Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, under which Quebec City returned to French rule after its loss in 1629.

He is also known for being the inventor of the table knife. He was annoyed by the bad mannerisms that sharp knives brought to the dining table, so in 1637 he ordered that all of the knives on his dining table have their blades dulled and their tips rounded. The design quickly spread and was popularized all around France and other countries.

Richelieu has frequently been depicted in popular fiction, principally as the lead villain in Alexandre Dumas's 1844 novel The Three Musketeers and its numerous film adaptations.

This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original content was at Cardinal Richelieu. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with WeRelate, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.
  1. 1.0 1.1 Cardinal Richelieu, in Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.