Timeline for the 7th Illinois Infantry at the Battle of Shiloh Part III (American Civil War)

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Shiloh, Hardin, Tennessee, United States
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1862 - 1862

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Article Description

This article, Part III, includes Battle Analysis; and, References and Resources regarding the 7th Illinois Infantry at the Battle of Shiloh. In addition, a list of related articles on We Relate is provided. In Part I, entries date from 2l February to 5 April 1862. That part also includes Order of Command; Battle Preparation and Context; and Casualties. The primary, detailed entries dated 6 - 8 April are located in Part II, which includes only that Battle Timeline.

Several sources are compiled in this first version. Eventually, descriptions from other sources will also be integrated, ultimately correlating multiple perspectives and types of records. When adding other sources in the future, I will continue searching for discrepancies, and attempt to reconcile those while also including the differing accounts in my text. Also, I hope others will contribute their knowledge. Presently, some entries do not include a time of day. As data from other sources is collected, hopefully at least approximate times can be added to these entries, and they can then be located in the correct sequence.

Battle Analysis

  • "Neither in his abbreviated battle report nor later in his memoirs did General Grant provide much insight or comment on the day-long stand made by the defenders of the Hornets' Nest. But the courageous stand made by Wallace's and Prentiss's men had gained the surviving Federal forces precious time. Since 4 P.M. the Hornets' Nest had occupied the full attention of the majority of Confederate forces still effectively engaged on the field." Surrender in the Center, National Park Civil War Series
  • [The 7th Illinois] "Of the noble survivors we can only say of them, they did well; they played their part as nobly as the most gallant warriors have ever done on any battle-field." p. 63 Ambrose
  • [The 7th Illinois] "In these two days of battle Major Rowett... proved himself worthy the leadership of brave men. Where danger most threatened, there he was always found... He was wounded twice and had his horse shot but nothing could check him. At the head of his regiment he was always found, and it is conceded by those who knew, that no regimental commander handled his command on Shiloh's field better than Major Rowett handled the Seventh." p. 63 Ambrose
  • [The 7th Illinois] "At no time was the regiment driven into confusion, though many times its line was broken, but each time was reformed promptly, and be it said to the credit of the regiment, not a prisoner was taken in consequence of straggling." p. 63 Ambrose
  • "On the eve of battle, Grant's and Johnston's armies were of comparable size, but the Confederates were poorly armed with antique weapons, including shotguns, hunting rifles, pistols, flintlock muskets, and even a few pikes. However, some regiments, notably the 6th and 7th Kentucky Infantry, had Enfield rifles. They approached the battle with very little combat experience; Braxton Bragg's men from Pensacola and Mobile were the best trained." Shiloh, Wikipedia.
  • "Grant's army included 32 out of 62 infantry regiments who had combat experience at Fort Donelson. One half of his artillery batteries and most of his cavalry were also combat veterans." Shiloh, Wikipedia.
  • "In my dispassionate judgment, no men could have done better than Grant's army did on Sunday. Veterans could not have withstood the solid lines and unbroken fire which girdled them throughout that long and terrible day. It is true there was disorder, and many brigades on the front, after hours of incessant fighting, did give way; but the men were not whipped-only disheartened. Some obloquy has been thrown on certain Ohio troops. This was both unjust and cruel. No men could have stood better against a wall of fire than those Western troops, fresh from the plough and the shop. The Confederate dead who lay over that field on Sunday night told how severe had been the fire, and dreadful the carnage, inflicted by the sturdy men of the West." De Hass


*"The charge that the officers were derelict is also unjust. That grave military errors were committed in the disposition of the camp, and the exercise of proper precaution, has been shown; but that they were remiss on the field is not true. General Grant, after reaching the field, was active, and his presence gave confidence. The division commanders were untiring in their efforts; General Sherman particularly distinguished himself, and by his presence and bravery greatly inspirited the men. McClernand, Hurlbut, and others did effective service. General Prentiss, who was captured with part of his division, contended bravery with an overpowering force before he succumbed. The brigade commanders displayed great courage, coolness and skill. The same may be said of regimental commanders, and down to the lowest noncommissioned officers." De Hass 
*"If the army had not behaved well, where would it have been when darkness closed the scene? It has been assumed by those inimical to officers engaged at Shiloh, that the army was utterly demoralized. and routed from any definite line. This is untenable. Sherman's line of battle was never wholly destroyed." De Hass

  • "These organizations were of varying strength in numbers, a regiment sometimes counting 250 men, sometimes 600 or more, but never, in any case, an effective force of 1,000 — the number usually thought of as making a regiment. Many of these regiments, batteries and independent companies and battalions were under fire for the first time at Shiloh. Some of them were undrilled, and some were very indifferently armed. The sudden onslaught of the enemy, driving in the pickets, overpowering the outlying forces and carrying their camps, coming on toward the Landing with seemingly irresistible power, sweeping all before him, was an exhibition of the terror of war which was sufficient to try the nerves of a veteran. It is not surprising that under the severe trial some of the raw recruits became terrorized and unmanageable; the real

matter for wonder is that the green and untried regiments stood so well the most terrible test of war — a sudden, well- planned attack in force by an able enemy. Illinois at Shiloh

  • "Grant's troop dispersement on the forested plateau was highly questionable. Holding the advance were two untested divisions—Sherman's on the right ... and Brig. Gen. Benjamin M. Prentiss on the left ... The three combat-tested veteran divisions, those of Brig. Gen. John A. McClernand ... Stephen A. Hurlbut, and William H. L. Wallace camped in the rear, closer to the landing." The Federal Advance, National Park Civil War Series
  • "The citizens of the divided nation were stunned when the Shiloh casualty lists began pouring in." The Nation Stunned, National Park Civil War Series
  • "The fact of a Christian church ... giving name to a wholesale cutting of Christian throats by Christian hands need not be dwelt on here..." Chapter VI, Bierce

References and Resources

Books

  • McPherson, James M. The Atlas of the Civil War. New York: Macmillan, 1994. Print. From book cover: "This atlas reconstructs the battles of America's bloodiest war with unparalleled clarity and precision. It charts all of the major campaigns and many of the smaller skirmishes of the Civil War."
  • Woodhead, Henry and the Editors of Time-Life Books, et al, eds. Shiloh. Alexandria, Va: Time-Life Books, 1996. Print. This is a collection of letters, diaries, photos and memorabilia, with explanatory text written by the editors.

Books and Articles Available On-line with Full Text

  • Ambrose, Daniel L. "History of the Seventh Regiment Illinois Volunteer Infantry, from Its First Muster into the U.S. Service, April 25, 1861, to Its Final Muster Out, July 9, 1865." Google Books. 1868. Print. Internet resource. Author Ambrose served in Company H of the 7th. He evidently combined a personal journal with official records to write this book, and includes rosters. Accessed 4 August 2011. [1]
  • "Battle of Shiloh." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Internet resource. Last modified 22 July 2011. Web. Accessed 4 August 2011. [2]
  • Bierce, Ambrose. "What I Saw of Shiloh." Civil War Home. Internet resource. Accessed 4 August 2011. Served in the 9th Indiana Infantry. [3]
  • Daniel, Larry J, and Stacy D. Allen. The Battle of Shiloh. Fort Washington, PA: Eastern National, 1998. Print. Internet resource. Accessed 6 August 2011. This is one of many free brief e-books focused on major battles, and general Civil War information. In addition to the text, books include maps, photos and paintings. The e-books are on-line copies of the books the NPS sells in print version. (Organized by section, no page numbers. Citations list the section title for each quote.) [4]
  • De Hass, Colonel Wills. "The Battle of Shiloh." Civil War Home. 1878. Internet resource. Author De Hass served in the 77th Ohio, Sherman's division. Accessed 4 August 2011. [5]
  • Force, M. F. (Manning Ferguson) "From Fort Henry to Corinth." New York: C. Scribner's Sons. 1881. Google Books. Print. Internet resource. Also written by a soldier, of the 20th Ohio Infantry, he was a major promoted to regimental commander. He cites official reports of battles and operations as primary sources, both Confederate and National. In the introduction he states, "These reports... will appear in the series of volumes of Military Reports now in preparation under the supervision of Colonel Scott, Chief of the War Records Office in the War Department." Accessed 4 August 2011. [6]
  • Illinois, Adjutant General. "Report of the Adjutant General of the State of Illinois for the Years 1861 - 1866." 1900-1902. rev. ed. Cyber Drive Illinois. Print. Internet resource. Note from site: "The histories, some written shortly after the war’s end, are the work of numerous authors throughout the intervening years. The 1886 version of the Adjutant General’s Report included regimental histories compiled by that office which had not previously been published. The final 1900- 1902 republication of the report incorporated revisions and corrections to the histories." Accessed 4 August 2011. [7]
  • Mason, George, and Stanley Waterloo. Illinois at Shiloh: Report of the Shiloh Battlefield Commission and Ceremonies at the Dedication of the Monuments Erected to Mark the Positions of the Illinois Commands Engaged in the Battle; the Story of the Battle. Chicago, Ill: M.A. Donohue & Co., printers, 1905. Print. Internet resource. [8]

Websites

  • Home of the American Civil War. Civilwarhome.com. Includes battle descriptions, biographies, essays, links, and more. Note from site: "The 'Index of Civil War Information Available on the Internet' formally maintained by the LSU Civil War Center is now maintained by civilwarhome.com."  [9]
  • 7th Illinois Monument Inscription. Shiloh National Military Park. Accessed 3 August 2011. Includes photos and text from the monuments to the regiment. [10]


Return to Timeline for the 7th Illinois Infantry at the Battle of Shiloh Part I (American Civil War) [11]

Return to Timeline for the 7th Illinois Infantry at the Battle of Shiloh Part II (American Civil War) [12]

Related Articles

Other articles on We Relate regarding the 7th Illinois Infantry include:

  • Official Regimental History of the 7th Illinois Infantry (American Civil War) [13]
  • 7th Illinois Infantry (American Civil War) [14]
  • Timeline for the 7th Illinois Infantry in the Campaigns Against Forts Henry and Donelson (American Civil War) [15]

Each of these articles includes separate lists of resources, with some repetition from those cited here, as well as additional sources.

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