Place:Sichuan, People's Republic of China

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NameSichuan
Alt namesSichuan Shengsource: Family History Library Catalog
Sikangsource: Family History Library Catalog
Ssu-ch'uansource: Times Atlas of World History (1993) p 356
Szechuansource: Wikipedia
Szechwansource: Wikipedia
TypeProvince
Coordinates29.833°N 105.0°E
Located inPeople's Republic of China
Contained Places
Inhabited place
Aba
An Xian
Anfuzhen
Angduo
Anguchang
Anju
Anjuzhen
Anrenzhen
Anyue
Baicaochang
Baidiao
Baigusi
Baihua
Baijie
Baijietan
Bailin
Bailuchang
Baima
Baimachang
Baimamiao
Baimiaozi
Baisha
Baishaba
Baishiyi
Baishui
Baitou
Baitoutan
Baixi
Baiyü
Baizi
Banqiao
Banqiaochang
Banqiaoxi
Banzhuyuan
Baoguosi
Baolin
Baolunyuan
Baomachang
Baoxingchang
Baozhuchang
Barkam
Batang
Bazhong
Beidouzhen
Beimuzhen
Beiwenquan
Bian'er
Bianminchang
Bibo
Caijiachang
Caijiagang
Cangxi
Caochi
Caojiezi
Chadian
Chadianzi
Chajia
Chalisi
Changshageng
Changshan
Changshengqiao
Chengdu
Chengjiangzhen
Chengjiazhen
Chenjiachang
Chenshichang
Chilingchang
Chishuihe
Chongkanzhen
Chuosijia
Ciba
Ciqikou
Cizhuping
Cuntan
Cuqiao
Da Xian
Da'an
Dabasi
Dacun
Dadukou
Dahuasi
Daijiagou
Dainkog
Daisi
Dalin
Damianzhen
Damiaochang
Danba
Danleng
Danshan
Daocheng
Daoliupu
Daqiao
Dashanpu
Dashi
Dashiqiao
Datachang
Dawu
Daxingchang
Dayanchi
Dayi
Dayuba
Dazhou
Dazhu
Dazhubao
Dechang
Denggongchang
Dengguanzhen
Deshengchang
Deyang
Dianfangba
Dingjia
Dingzichang
Dongchan
Dongguan
Donglinchang
Dongxi
Dongxingchang
Dongyuezhen
Douzishan
Dukou
Duogu'nao
Duoyue
Dushichang
Dêgê
Dêrong
Emei
Enyang
Falun
Fangjiachang
Fangshengpu
Feilong
Feilongguan
Fengdian
Fenggaopu
Fenghuangchang
Fengyi
Fenshuiling
Fenshuipu
Fenshuizhen
Fubao
Fuji
Fujiazhen
Fulongchang
Fuluchang
Fuluzhen
Funiuchang
Fushun
Fuxing
Fuxingchang
Ganchangba
Ganfosi
Gangqiao
Ganjiang
Ganluchang
Ganluo
Ganzê
Gaochang
Gaojiazhen
Gaoliang
Gaolouchang
Gaoping
Gaoshan
Gaoshengchang
Gaoshi
Gaoshikan
Gaosichang
Gaoyapu
Gaoziba
Garyi
Gelanchang
Gelaochang
Gongjing
Gongzui
Goujiaozhen
Guan Xian
Guancheng
Guandu
Guang'an
Guangfu
Guangsbunchang
Guangxing
Guangyuan
Guangyuanzhen
Guanjian
Guankou
Guanshanchang
Guanyin
Guanyinchang
Guanyinpu
Guanyinqiao
Guanyintan
Guanyinzhen
Guidexiang
Guihuayuan
Guilinchang
Guilinzhen
Gujiatuo
Guobei
Gusong
Guxi
Guyi
Haitangxi
Hanchang
Hangu
Hanguchang
Hanyang
Hanyuan
Hanyuangai
Haozhikou
Hebaochang
Hebian
Hebo
Heerkan
Hefengchang
Heiyantang
Hejiachang
Hejiang
Hejiangzhen
Hejiazhen
Hekouchang
Helaluo
Hengshanchang
Hengtianchi
Hengtianxi
Heshachang
Heshi
Hetang
Hexingchang
Hongmenpu
Hongmiaozi
Hongpailou
Houjiaping
Huaidezhen
Huangdan
Huangjinggou
Huangjinjing
Huangjuezhen
Huanglian
Huanglongxi
Huangshui
Huangtuchang
Huaqiao
Huayan
Huayang
Hufengchang
Huidong
Huili
Huilong
Huilongchang
Hujiadian
Hujiasi
Hushi
Ji'anchang
Jiajiachang
Jiajiang
Jiamingzhen
Jianchaxi
Jiang'an
Jiangbei
Jiange
Jiangjunqiao
Jiangkou
Jianglingxi
Jiangyou
Jiangyuanzhen
Jianyang
Jiasi
Jiatan
Jiatanchang
Jielongchang
Jiepai
Jieshi
Jijiamiao
Jike
Jin'gangpo
Jinchuan
Jinchuanqiao
Jindaichang
Jingangtuo
Jingguanzhen
Jingyan
Jingzichang
Jinkuang
Jinlijing
Jinpingchang
Jinshanxiang
Jinshijing
Jintang
Jinzisi
Jitianzhen
Jiuchuchang
Jiujing
Jiuli
Jiulong
Jiulongchang
Jiulongpo
Jiuxian
Jixiangsi
Juexizhen
Junlian
Kaijiang
Kangding
Kongtan
La'a
Laifeng
Laifengyi
Laisu
Laitan
Lamaya
Langzhong
Lanjiang
Lantianba
Laochang
Laoheba
Laolongtan
Lazha
Leibo
Leishendian
Lengshuichang
Leshan
Lezhi
Liang'anchang
Liangchahe
Liangfengwu
Lianghekou
Liangjia
Lianglukou
Lianjiechang
Lichang
Lidian
Lidu
Liemienzhen
Lijiaba
Lijiajie
Lijiatuo
Lingjiachang
Linjiangchang
Linjiangsi
Linshui
Liqiao
Lishi
Lishizhen
Litang
Liuchengba
Liujiachang
Liumachang
Lize
Lizhou
Lizhuang
Liziwei
Longchang
Longdongtuo
Longfengchang
Longhui
Longji
Longjiang
Longjie
Longmen
Longmenzhang
Longnüsi
Longquanyi
Longquanzhen
Longsheng
Longshizhen
Longshu
Longtaichang
Longtan
Longtansi
Longtanzhen
Longxi
Longxian
Lonzhen
Lu Xian
Luchang
Luding
Lugu
Luhuo
Lujiachang
Lujiaoxi
Lujiaqiao
Lukong
Luoba
Luobo
Luocheng
Luoduzhen
Luojiachang
Luojiang
Luolong
Luoqi
Luoquanzhen
Luowenba
Luozhexi
Lushan
Luzhou
Ma'erna
Maanshan
Mabian
Mafangchang
Majiaoba
Maliuchang
Maliuping
Maniganggo
Manjing
Mao'ertuo
Maodianzi
Maowen
Marong
Matajing
Matouxi
Mawuba
Meishan
Meixing
Mengluchang
Mengtong
Mianning
Mianyang
Mianzhu
Miaozigou
Mituo
Mixin
Miyi
Moke
Moxi
Mozichang
Mu'er
Muchengzhen
Muchuan
Mudongzhen
Mula
Muli
Mumen
Mutouhao
Nan'anba
Nanba
Nanbu
Nanchong
Nanhekan
Nanjiang
Nanjie
Nanjing
Nanjinyi
Nanpengchang
Nanping
Nanwenquan
Nanxi
Nanxikou
Naxi
Neijiang
Niangmake
Ningnan
Niufozhen
Niuhuaxi
Niupichang
Niutan
Niuxichang
Nixis
Nixizhen
Nürenbei
Paifangchang
Pan'ao
Pangzidian
Panlongzhen
Panzhihua
Pengjiachang
Penglaizhen
Pengnan
Pengshan
Pengshui
Pengxi
Pengxian
Pi Xian
Piluchang
Ping'an
Pingchang
Pingtan
Pingwu
Pipa
Puge
Pujiang
Pulü
Puxingchang
Qianning
Qiantangzhen
Qianwei
Qiaohengjin
Qiaotou
Qiezixi
Qifosi
Qigong
Qijian
Qingchuan
Qingfu
Qingjiang
Qingjujie
Qingliuzhen
Qinglongchang
Qinglongguan
Qingmuguan
Qingping
Qingshen
Qingshui
Qingshuixi
Qingtong
Qingxi
Qingxizhen
Qionglai
Qishudang
Qitangzhen
Qiuchang
Qiuxizhen
Qu Xian
Qushui
Renhechang
Renliuchang
Renlong
Renshou
Rentuo
Renyichang
Rong Xian
Rongbaca
Rongding
Ruo'ergai
Sanchaba
Sangyuanzhen
Sanhechang
Sanhui
Sanhuiba
Sanjiang
Sanjiazhen
Sanquzhen
Santai
Sanxingchang
Seda
Seergu
Shadui
Shandong
Shangyinkou
Shanlenggang
Shaoyun
Shaping
Shaquzhen
Shatuosi
Shawan
Shaximiao
Shazihe
Shehong
Shehongmiao
Shengjiachi
Shiban
Shibanxi
Shidong
Shifo
Shifochang
Shigaopu
Shihuixi
Shijiaba
Shijiaxiang
Shilong
Shima
Shimachang
Shimen
Shimian
Shipanpu
Shipantuo
Shiqiao
Shiqiaopu
Shituan
Shixiechang
Shiyachang
Shiyan
Shiyangchang
Shiyanqiao
Shiyu
Shizhongtan
Shizichang
Shou'anzhen
Shuajingsi
Shuangfengyi
Shuangfuchang
Shuanggufen
Shuanghe
Shuanghechang
Shuangjiang
Shuangliu
Shuangshipu
Shuangshiqiao
Shuikou
Shuikouchang
Shuitangzi
Shuitutuo
Shunhechang
Shunlongchang
Shuping
Sibochi
Sijupu
Simeng
Simianshan
Simingchang
Songgai
Songjiachang
Songjiapu
Songpan
Suchang
Suining
Suji
Sujiawan
Sumatou
Supoqiao
Sêrxü
Tai'an
Taihe
Taihexiang
Taihezhen
Taiping
Taipingchang
Taipingsi
Taipingzhen
Taishanchang
Tangba
Tangijatuo
Taojiagou
Taxusi
Tazishan
Tianjia
Tianlin
Tianquan
Tianyangping
Tiaodengchang
Tiechangpu
Tiefo
Tongguanyi
Tongjiang
Tongjiangchang
Tongquansi
Tongrengchang
Tongtan
Tongxi
Tongxian
Tongxinchang
Tongxing
Tuannian
Tudichang
Tuhuangba
Tumenpu
Tuowu
Tuqiao
Tuquiaochang
Tuwang
Têwo
Wagang
Walang
Wan'anchang
Wanchangchang
Wangchang
Wangdalong
Wangpingchang
Wangsiying
Wangu
Wanguchang
Wangyang
Wanshan
Wanshouchang
Wanyuan
Weituo
Weixi
Weiyuan
Wengongchang
Wenjiachang
Wenjiang
Wenxingchang
Wubaozhen
Wufengxi
Wuhuang
Wujianpu
Wujiazhen
Wulaxi
Wumiaoxiang
Wupaowan
Wusheng
Wushengchang
Wutanchang
Wutongqiao
Xiajiezi
Xialufang
Xiamianzhen
Xiangcheng
Xiangfusi
Xiangjiachang
Xiangshizhen
Xianshichang
Xiantan
Xiaogu
Xiaoheying
Xiaojiachang
Xiaonanhai
Xiaoyuan
Xiaxiangcheng
Xiban
Xichong
Xiejunmiao
Xiemachang
Xilai
Xinchang
Xinchangzi
Xindian
Xindianzi
Xingjing
Xinglongchang
Xingwenping
Xinjin
Xinqiao
Xinshengzhen
Xinshizhen
Xiwenquan
Xuanhuan
Xuantan
Xuchang
Xuyong
Ya'an
Yaan
Yajiang
Yanbian
Yangchang
Yanghexi
Yanghua
Yangjiachang
Yangjiajie
Yangliupu
Yangmachang
Yangmahe
Yanjing
Yantan
Yanting
Yaoba
Yaoshizhen
Yibin
Yibutan
Yidun
Yihechang
Yili
Yilong
Yingshan
Yingxiangjie
Yinong
Yinshanzhen
Yipinchang
Yixingchang
Yong'anchang
Yongan
Yongfengchang
Yongjia
Yongnianchang
Yongqing
Yongshunchang
Yongxin
Yongxing
Yongxingchang
Youtingpu
Youxi
Youxizhen
Yuanbachang
Yuantongsi
Yuanxing
Yuanyangpu
Yuanyangqiao
Yuebo
Yuechi
Yuelaichang
Yuemenpu
Yuexi
Yujiachang
Yulong
Yunjin
Yunlong
Yunluchang
Yunmen
Yushanzhen
Yusichang
Yuxi
Yü-feng
Zanri
Zaojiaochang
Zhangjiachang
Zhangjiaqiao
Zhangming
Zhanjiajing
Zhaohua
Zhaojue
Zhaoya
Zhayi
Zhengguanchang
Zhengzichang
Zhenjiangguan
Zhenjinqiao
Zhenxi
Zhenzichang
Zhenzijie
Zhong'ao
Zhongdu
Zhonghechang
Zhonghezhen
Zhongjianchang
Zhongjiang
Zhongxiangchang
Zhongxing
Zhongxingchang
Zhongxinzhen
Zhouba
Zhoubachang
Zhoujiachang
Zhoujiagou
Zhoulichang
Zhoupo
Zhuangxi
Zhufuo
Zhugao
Zhugentan
Zhujiachang
Zhuwotuo
Zhuxi
Zhuyangxi
Zhuyuan
Zhêhor
Zigong ( 600 - )
Zitong
Ziyang
Zizhong
Zongchang
Zoumagang
Zuosuo
Unknown
Aba Tibetan Qiang
Cheng-tu Shih
Chongqing Shi
Garzê Tibetan
Li-t'ang Hsien
Liangshan Yi
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Sichuan (known formerly in the West by its postal map spellings of Szechwan or Szechuan) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the southwest of the country. The name of the province is an abbreviation of Sì Chuānlù, or "Four circuits of rivers", which is itself abbreviated from Chuānxiá Sìlù, or "Four circuits of rivers and gorges", named after the division of the existing circuit into four during the Northern Song Dynasty. The capital is Chengdu, a key economic centre of Western China.

Contents

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Ba-Shu Kingdom

Throughout its prehistory and early history, the region and its vicinity in the Yangtze River region was the cradle of unique local civilizations which can be dated back to at least the 15th century BC and coinciding with the later years of the Shang Dynasty and Zhou Dynasty in north China. Sichuan was referred to in ancient Chinese sources as Ba-Shu (巴蜀) as an abbreviation of the kingdoms of Ba and Shu which existed within the Sichuan Basin. Ba included Chongqing and the land in eastern Sichuan along the Yangtze and some tributary streams, while Shu included today's Chengdu, its surrounding plain and adjacent territories in western Sichuan.

The existence of the early Kingdom of Shu was poorly recorded in the main historical records of China, it was however referred to in Shujing as an ally of the Zhou who defeated the Shang. Accounts of Shu exist mainly as a mixture of mythological stories and historical legends recorded in local annals such as the Chronicles of Huayang compiled in the Jin Dynasty (265–420), with folk stories such as that of Emperor Duyu (杜宇) who taught the people agriculture and transformed himself into a cuckoo after his death.[1] The existence of a highly developed civilization with an independent bronze industry in Sichuan eventually came to light with an archaeological discovery in 1986 at a small village named Sanxingdui in Guanghan County, Sichuan. This site, believed to be an ancient city of the Shu Kingdom, was initially discovered by a local farmer in 1929 who found jade and stone artefacts. Excavations by archaeologists in the area yielded few significant finds until 1986 when two major sacrificial pits were found with spectacular bronze items as well as artefacts in jade, gold, earthenware, and stone. This and other discoveries in Sichuan contest the conventional historiography that the local culture and technology of Sichuan were undeveloped in comparison to the technologically and culturally "advanced" Yellow River valley of north-central China.


The region had its own distinct religious beliefs and worldview. Various ores were abundant. Adding to its significance, the area was also on the trade route from the Huang He Valley to foreign countries of the southwest, especially India.

Qin Dynasty

The rulers of the expansionist Qin Dynasty, based in present day Gansu and Shaanxi, were only the first strategists to realize that the area's military importance matched its commercial and agricultural significance. The Sichuan basin is surrounded by the Himalayas to the west, the Qinling Range to the north, and mountainous areas of Yunnan to the south. Since the Yangtze River flows through the basin and then through the perilous Yangzi Gorges to eastern and southern China, Sichuan was a staging area for amphibious military forces and a refuge for political refugees.

Qin armies finished their conquest of the kingdoms of Shu and Ba by 316 BC. Any written records and civil achievements of earlier kingdoms were destroyed. Qin administrators introduced improved agricultural technology. Li Bing, engineered the Dujiangyan Irrigation System to control the Min River, a major tributary of the Yangtze River. This innovative hydraulic system was composed of movable weirs which could be adjusted for high or low water flow, according to the season, to either provide irrigation or prevent floods. The increased agricultural output and taxes made the area a source of provisions and men for Qin's unification of China.

Han Dynasty and the Three Kingdoms

Sichuan was subjected to the autonomous control of kings named by the imperial family of Han Dynasty. Following the declining central government of the Empire of Han Dynasty in the 2nd century, the Sichuan basin, surrounded by mountains and easily defensible, became a popular place for upstart generals to found kingdoms that challenged the authority of Yangtze valley emperors over China.[2]

In 221, during the partition following the fall of the Eastern Han Dynasty, i.e. the era of the Three Kingdoms, Liu Bei founded the southwest kingdom of Shu-Han (; 221-263) in parts of Sichuan, Guizhou and Yunnan, with Chengdu as its capital. Shu-Han claimed to be the successor to the Han Dynasty.

In 263, the Jin Dynasty from north China conquered the Kingdom of Shu-Han as its first step on the path to unify China again, under their rule. Salt production becomes a major business in Ziliujing District. During this Six Dynasties period of Chinese disunity, Sichuan began to be populated by non-Han ethnic minority peoples, owing to the migration of Gelao people from the Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau to the Sichuan basin, where the Han are indigenous.


Tang Dynasty

Sichuan came under the firm control of a Chinese central government during the Sui Dynasty, but it was during the subsequent Tang Dynasty where Sichuan regained its previous political and cultural prominence for which it was known during the Han. Chengdu became famous as a supplier of armies and the home of Du Fu, who is sometimes called China's greatest poet. During the An Lushan Rebellion (755-763), Emperor Xuanzong of Tang fled from Chang'an to Sichuan. The region was torn by constant warfare and economic distress as it was besieged by the Tubo Kingdom from modern-day Tibet.

Song Dynasty

The next strongly centralized government of China, the Song Dynasty (960-1279), was able to protect Sichuan from Tibetan tribal attacks, such that the region saw a cultural revival with the literary works of Su Xun, Su Shi, and Su Zhe.[3]

In the 12th and 13th centuries, the Southern Song Dynasty established coordinated defenses against the Mongolian Yuan Dynasty in Sichuan and Xiangyang. The Southern Song state monopolized Sichuan tea industry to pay for warhorses, but this state intervention brought immediate devastation to local economy and commerce. The line of defense was finally broken through after the first use of firearms in history during the six-year siege of Xiangyang, which ended in 1273.

Ming Dynasty

During the Ming Dynasty major architectural works were created in Sichuan. Buddhism remained influential in the region. Bao'en Temple is a well-preserved 15th century monastery complex built between 1440 and 1446 during Emperor Yingzong's reign (1427–64) in the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644). Dabei Hall enshrines a thousand-armed wooden image of Guanyin and Huayan Hall is a repository with a revolving sutra cabinet. The wall paintings, sculptures and other ornamental details are masterpieces of the Ming period.

In the middle of the 17th century, the peasant rebel leader Zhang Xianzhong(1606–1646) from Yan'an, Shanxi Province, nicknamed Yellow Tiger, led his peasant troop from north China to the south, and conquered Sichuan. Upon capturing it, he declared himself emperor of the Daxi Dynasty (大西王朝). In response to the resistance from local elites, he massacred a large native population. As a result of the massacre as well as the years of turmoil after the Ming-Qing transition, the population of Sichuan fell sharply, requiring a massive resettlement of people from neighboring Huguang province (modern Hubei and Hunan).[4]

Qing Dynasty

During the Qing Dynasty, Sichuan was merged with Shaanxi and Shanxi to create "Shenzhuan" from 1680-1731 and 1735-1748.[3] The current borders of Sichuan (which then included Chongqing) were established in the early 18th century. In the aftermath of the Sino-Nepalese War on China's southwestern border, the Qing gave Sichuan's provincial government direct control over the minority-inhabited areas of Sichuan west of Kangding, which had previously been handled by an amban.

A landslide dam on the Dadu River caused by an earthquake gave way on 10 June 1786. The resulting flood killed 100,000 people.

Republic of China

In the early 20th century, the newly founded Republic of China established Chuanbian Special Administrative District, which acknowledged the unique culture and economy of the region largely differing from that of mainstream northern China in the Yellow River region. The Special District later became the province of Xikang, incorporating the areas inhabited by Yi, Tibetan and Qiang ethnic minorities to its west, and eastern part of today's Tibet Autonomous Region.

In the 20th century, as Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing, and Wuhan had all been occupied by the Japanese during the Second Sino-Japanese War, the capital of the Republic of China had been temporary relocated to Chongqing, then a major city in Sichuan. An enduring legacy of this move is that nearby inland provinces, such as Shaanxi, Gansu, and Guizhou, which previously never had modern Western-style universities, began to be developed in this regard. The difficulty of accessing the region overland from the eastern part of China and the foggy climate hindering the accuracy of Japanese bombing of the Sichuan Basin, made the region the stronghold of Chiang Kai-Shek's Kuomintang government during 1938-45, and led to the Bombing of Chongqing.

The Second Sino-Japanese War was soon followed by the resumed Chinese Civil War, and the cities of East China fell to the Communists one after another, the Kuomintang government again tried to make Sichuan its stronghold on the mainland, although it already saw some Communist activity since it was one area on the road of the Long March. Chiang Kai-Shek himself flew to Chongqing from Taiwan in November 1949 to lead the defense. But the same month Chongqing fell to the Communists, followed by Chengdu on 10 December. The Kuomintang general Wang Sheng wanted to stay behind with his troops to continue anticommunist guerilla war in Sichuan, but was recalled to Taiwan. Many of his soldiers made their way there as well, via Burma.

People's Republic of China

The People's Republic of China was founded in 1949, and it split Sichuan into four areas and separated out Chongqing municipality. Sichuan was reconstituted in 1952, with Chongqing added in 1954, while the former Xikang province was split between Tibet in the west and Sichuan in the east.[3]

The province was deeply affected by the Great Chinese Famine of 1959-1961, during which period some 9.4 million people (13.07% of the population at the time) died.

In 1978, when Deng Xiaoping took power, Sichuan was one of the first provinces to undergo limited experimentation with market economic enterprise.

From 1955 until 1997 Sichuan had been China's most populous province, hitting 100 million mark shortly after the 1982 census figure of 99,730,000. This changed in 1997 when the city of Chongqing as well as the surrounding counties of Fuling and Wanxian were split off into the new Chongqing Municipality. The new municipality was formed to spearhead China's effort to economically develop its western provinces, as well as to coordinate the resettlement of residents from the reservoir areas of the Three Gorges Dam project.

In 1997 when Sichuan split, the sum of the two parts was recorded to be 114,720,000 people. As of 2010, Sichuan ranks as both the 3rd largest and 4th most populous province in China.

In May 2008, an earthquake with a magnitude of 7.9/8.0 hit just northwest of the provincial capital of Chengdu. Official figures recorded a death toll of nearly 70,000 people, and millions of people were left homeless.

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This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original content was at Sichuan. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with WeRelate, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.