Chula Vista (;  ) is the second largest city in the San Diego metropolitan area, the seventh largest city in Southern California, the fourteenth largest city in the state of California, and the 77th-largest city in the United States. The population was 243,916 as of the 2010 census.
Located just from downtown San Diego and from the Mexican border in the South Bay region of the metropolitan area, the city is at the center of one of the richest economic and culturally diverse zones in the United States. Chula Vista is so named because of its scenic location between the San Diego Bay and coastal mountain foothills.
Founded in the early 19th century, fast population growth has recently been observed in the city. Located in the city is one of America's few year-round United States Olympic Training centers and popular tourist destinations include Cricket Wireless Amphitheater, the Chula Vista marina, and the Chula Vista Nature Center.
In the year 3000 B.C. people speaking the Yuman (Quechan) language began movement into the region from the Lower Colorado River Valley and southwestern Arizona portions of the Sonoran desert. Later the Kumeyaay tribe came to populate the land, on which the city sits today, who lived in the area for hundreds of years.
In the year 1542, a fleet of three Spanish Empire ships commanded by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailed into San Diego Harbor. Early explorations by Spanish conquistadors, such as these, led to Spanish claims of the land. The historic land on which Chula Vista sits became part of the 1795 land grant known as Rancho del Rey or The King's Ranch. The land eventually was renamed Rancho de la Nacion.
During the Mexican-American War, California was claimed by the United States, regardless of the California independence movement that had briefly swept the state. Mexico received compensation for the annexed territories, to include a cash payment and assumption of debts, as agreed at the end of hostilities and documented by the treaty of Guadalupe-Hildago. Though California was now under the jurisdiction of the United States, land grants were allowed to continue in the form of private property.
The San Diego Land and Town Company developed lands of the Rancho de la Nación for new settlement. The town began as a five thousand acre development, with the first house being erected in 1887; by 1889, ten houses had been completed. Chula Vista can be roughly translated from Spanish as "beautiful view."
The citizens of Chula Vista voted to incorporate on October 17, 1911. The State approved in November.
In 1916, the Hercules Powder Company opened a 30-acre bayfront site, now known as Gunpowder point, which produced substances used to make cordite, which was used extensively by the British military during World War I. Although the Great Depression affected Chula Vista significantly, agriculture still provided considerable income for the residents. In 1931, the lemon orchards produced $1 million in revenue and the celery fields contributed $600,000.
The relocation of Rohr Aircraft Corporation to Chula Vista in early 1941, just months before the attack on Pearl Harbor, changed Chula Vista. The land never returned to being orchard groves again. The population of post-World War II Chula Vista tripled from 5,000 residents in 1940 to more than 16,000 in 1950. After the war, many of the factory workers and thousands of servicemen stayed in the area resulting in the huge growth in population. The last of the citrus groves and produce fields disappeared as Chula Vista became one of the largest communities in San Diego County. From 1960 to 2013, the South Bay Power Plant, a 700 megawatt four boiler plant, occupied of the Chula Vista waterfront.
In 1944, the state of California attempted to seize land in Chula Vista owned by Kajiro Oyama, a legal Japanese resident who was then interned in Utah. Oyama was correctly charged with putting the property in his son Fred's name with the intent to evade the Alien Land Law because Fred was a native-born citizen. The case went to the U.S. Supreme Court as Oyama v. California where the court found that Kajiro's equal protection rights had been violated.
During World War I and II The army maintained a base on what is now the corner of Main Street and Albany Avenue. It initially served as a border post during World War I, and was reestablished in December 1942. It was home to the 140th Infantry Regiment, 35th Infantry Division. The base was closed in February 1944, and the division went on to see combat in the European theater. All traces of the post have since been removed.
In 2003, Chula Vista had 200,000 residents and was the second largest city in San Diego County.
Chula Vista is growing at a fast pace, with major developments taking place in the Otay Valley near the U.S. Olympic Training Center and Otay Lake Reservoir. Thousands of new homes have been built in the Otay Ranch, Lomas Verdes, Rancho Del Rey, Eastlake and Otay Mesa Areas. The South Bay Expressway, a toll-road extension of state route 125, opened November 19, 2007, connecting freeways 805 and 905 with State Route 54.
On May 30, 2006 officials from Chula Vista and the San Diego Chargers met to potentially discuss building a new stadium that would serve as the home for the team. Yet, in June 2009 the Chargers removed Chula Vista as a possible location for a new stadium. In 2009, Chula Vista - along with nine other second tier metropolitan area cities such as Hialeah and Southern California's Santa Ana - was ranked as one of the most boring cities in America by Forbes Magazine; citing the large population but rare mentions of the city in national media. A current development plan in Chula Vista is to develop the bayfront.