Person:Henry III of England (1)

     
Henry III , King of England
Facts and Events
Name Henry III , King of England
Alt Name Henry , of Winchester
Gender Male
Birth[13] 1 Oct 1207 Winchester, Hampshire, EnglandWinchester Castle, House of Plantagenet
Title (nobility)[14] 1216-1272 King of England, Duke of Aquitaine
Marriage 14 JAN 1235/36 Canterbury, Kent, EnglandCathedral
to Eleonore de Provence
Alt Marriage 14 JAN 1236 Canterbury, Kent, EnglandCathedral
to Eleonore de Provence
Military[9] 14 May 1264 Lewes, Sussex, England Combatant of Lewes
Death[13] 16 Nov 1272 Westminster, London, EnglandWestminster Palace
Burial? 20 Nov 1272 Westminster Abbey, Westminster, Middlesex, England
Will[12] March 1273 Southwark


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272), also known as Henry of Winchester, was King of England, Lord of Ireland and Duke of Aquitaine from 1216 until his death. The son of King John and Isabella of Angoulême, Henry assumed the throne when he was only nine in the middle of the First Barons' War. Cardinal Guala declared the war against the rebel barons to be a religious crusade and Henry's forces, led by William Marshal, defeated the rebels at the battles of Lincoln and Sandwich in 1217. Henry promised to abide by the Great Charter of 1225, which limited royal power and protected the rights of the major barons. His early rule was dominated first by Hubert de Burgh and then Peter des Roches, who reestablished royal authority after the war. In 1230 the King attempted to reconquer the provinces of France that had once belonged to his father, but the invasion was a debacle. A revolt led by William Marshal's son, Richard, broke out in 1232, ending in a peace settlement negotiated by the Church.

Following the revolt, Henry ruled England personally, rather than governing through senior ministers. He travelled less than previous monarchs, investing heavily in a handful of his favourite palaces and castles. He married Eleanor of Provence, with whom he had five children. Henry was known for his piety, holding lavish religious ceremonies and giving generously to charities; the King was particularly devoted to the figure of Edward the Confessor, whom he adopted as his patron saint. He extracted huge sums of money from the Jews in England, ultimately crippling their ability to do business, and as attitudes towards the Jews hardened, he introduced the Statute of Jewry, attempting to segregate the community. In a fresh attempt to reclaim his family's lands in France, he invaded Poitou in 1242, leading to the disastrous Battle of Taillebourg. After this, Henry relied on diplomacy, cultivating an alliance with Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. Henry supported his brother Richard in his bid to become King of the Romans in 1256, but was unable to place his own son Edmund on the throne of Sicily, despite investing large amounts of money. He planned to go on crusade to the Levant, but was prevented from doing so by rebellions in Gascony.

By 1258, Henry's rule was increasingly unpopular, the result of the failure of his expensive foreign policies and the notoriety of his Poitevin half-brothers, the Lusignans, as well as the role of his local officials in collecting taxes and debts. A coalition of his barons, initially probably backed by Eleanor, seized power in a coup d'état and expelled the Poitevins from England, reforming the royal government through a process called the Provisions of Oxford. Henry and the baronial government enacted a peace with France in 1259, under which Henry gave up his rights to his other lands in France in return for King Louis IX of France recognising him as the rightful ruler of Gascony. The baronial regime collapsed but Henry was unable to reform a stable government and instability across England continued.

In 1263 one of the more radical barons, Simon de Montfort, seized power, resulting in the Second Barons' War. Henry successfully persuaded Louis to support his cause and mobilised an army. The Battle of Lewes occurred in 1264, where Henry was defeated and taken prisoner. Henry's eldest son, Edward, escaped from captivity to defeat de Montfort at the Battle of Evesham the following year and freed his father. Henry initially enacted a harsh revenge on the remaining rebels, but was persuaded by the Church to mollify his policies through the Dictum of Kenilworth. Reconstruction was slow and Henry had to acquiesce to various measures, including further suppression of the Jews, to maintain baronial and popular support. Henry died in 1272, leaving Edward as his successor. He was buried in Westminster Abbey, which he had rebuilt in the second half of his reign, and was moved to his current tomb in 1290. Some miracles were declared after his death but he was not canonised. Henry's 56-year reign makes him the fifth longest reigning monarch in English history.

RESEARCH NOTE

1. The claim that the above couple had a dau. Mary cannot be accepted (See Eng. 120). Possibly this has been misconstrued with the Mary, possible dau. of Edmund "Crouchback", and therefore granddaughter of Henry III. On the supposition that Mary was the dau. of Henry III, she was erroneously sealed to the above couple on 18 May 1933. Ordinance work for a supposed son Robert was also erroneously done, and he was sealed to this couple on 14 Mar 1938; however, there is no positive evidence that Henry III had a son Robert.

References
  1.   Dict. of Nat'l Biog., Eng. Pub. A, v. 6, p. 597, v. 17, p. 179, 180, v. 26, p. 12-31.
  2.   Royal Dau of Eng., Eng. 120, v. 1, p. 60, 120-29.
  3.   Scots Peerage, Scot 2b, v. 1, p. 6.
  4.   Tab. Souv. Gen., France 22, Tab. 31, 46, 51.
  5.   Burke's Peerage, Eng. P, 1949, pref. p. 253-54.
  6.   Plantagenet Ancestry, Eng. 116.
  7.   Mike Ashley, (i)British Kings & Queens: A Complete Biographical Encyclopedia of the Kings & Queens of Great Britain(/i) (New York, NY: Barnes.
  8.   David Williamson, (i)The National Portrait Gallery History of The Kings & Queens of England(/i) (Old Saybrook, CT: Konecky & Konecky, 2000( qu, pg 37, Primary quality.
  9. Henry III of England, in Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. (Online: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.).
  10.   Henry III, King of England, in Lundy, Darryl. The Peerage: A genealogical survey of the peerage of Britain as well as the royal families of Europe.
  11.   King Henry, III, in Find A Grave.
  12. Nichols, John. A collection of all the wills, now known to be extant, of the kings and queens of England, princes and princessess of Wales, and every branch of the blood royal: from the reign of William the Conqueror to that of Henry the Seventh, exclusive, with explanatory notes and a glossary. (London: J. Nichols, 1780), pages 15 to 17.

    The will may be read here (in Latin).

  13. 13.0 13.1 HENRY, in Cawley, Charles. Medieval Lands: A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families.
  14. Ridgeway, H.W. Henry III, in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.
Succession of Monarchs of the United Kingdom
Richard I of England

1189-1199
his uncle

John of England

1199-1216
his father

King of England

1216-1272

Edward I of England

1272-1307
his son

Edward II of England

1307-1328
his grandson

New Conquest
See High Kings of Ireland


'

John of England

1185-1216
his father

Lord of Ireland

1216-1272

Edward I of England

1272-1307
his son

Edward II of England

1307-1328
his grandson

French Nobility
Richard I of England

1189-1199
with his mother Eleanor of Aquitaine
his uncle

John of England

1199-1216
with his mother Eleanor of Aquitaine
his father

Duke of Aquitaine

1216-1272

Edward I of England

1272-1307
his son

Edward II of England

1307-1325
his grandson


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