Place:York, Yorkshire, England

Watchers
NameYork
Alt namesCaer Ebraucsource: Blue Guide: England (1980) p 619
Eboracumsource: Canby, Historic Places (1984) II, 1038
Eburacumsource: Athena, Romano-British Sites [online] (2000); Times Atlas of World History (1993) p 342
Eoforwicsource: Dark Ages, Archaeology (1998)
Jorviksource: Canby, Historic Places (1984) II, 1038
TypeBorough (county), City
Coordinates53.967°N 1.083°W
Located inYorkshire, England     ( - 1996)
See alsoAinsty Wapentake, Yorkshire, Englandarea surrounding the City of York
City of York District, Yorkshire, Englanddistrict municipality covering the area since 1996
Contained Places
Cemetery
St. Mary's Abbey
Yorkminster
Civil parish
York All Saints North Street
York All Saints Pavement
York Castle
York Davy Hall
York Holy Trinity Goodramgate
York Holy Trinity Kings Court
York Holy Trinity Micklegate
York Minster Yard with Beddern
York Mint Yard
York St. Andrew
York St. Crux
York St. Cuthbert St. Helen on the Walls and All Saints Peasholme ( - 1900 )
York St. Dennis
York St. George
York St. Giles in the Suburbs
York St. Helen Stonegate
York St. John Delpike
York St. John Micklegate
York St. Lawrence
York St. Margaret
York St. Martin Micklegate with St. Gregory
York St. Martin le Grand
York St. Mary Bishophill Junior
York St. Mary Bishophill Senior
York St. Mary Castlegate
York St. Maurice
York St. Michael Spurriergate
York St. Michael le Belfrey
York St. Nicholas
York St. Olave Marygate
York St. Peter le Willows
York St. Peter the Little
York St. Sampson
York St. Saviour
York St. Wilfrid
Extra parochial area
York Castle
York Davy Hall
York Minster Yard with Beddern
York Mint Yard
Parish (ancient)
York All Saints North Street
York All Saints Pavement
York Holy Trinity Goodramgate
York Holy Trinity Kings Court
York Holy Trinity Micklegate
York St. Andrew
York St. Crux
York St. Dennis
York St. George
York St. Giles in the Suburbs
York St. Helen Stonegate
York St. John Delpike
York St. John Micklegate
York St. Lawrence
York St. Margaret
York St. Martin le Grand
York St. Mary Bishophill Junior
York St. Mary Bishophill Senior
York St. Mary Castlegate
York St. Maurice
York St. Michael Spurriergate
York St. Michael le Belfrey
York St. Nicholas
York St. Olave Marygate
York St. Peter le Willows
York St. Peter the Little
York St. Sampson
York St. Saviour
York St. Wilfrid
Parochial area
York Castle
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

York is a historic walled city in North Yorkshire, England. At the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss, it is the historic county town of the historic county of Yorkshire. York Minster and a variety of cultural and sporting activities make it a popular tourist destination.

The city was founded by the Romans as Eboracum in 71 AD. It became the capital of the Roman province of Britannia Inferior, and later of the kingdoms of Deira, Northumbria and Jórvík. In the Middle Ages, York grew as a major wool trading centre and became the capital of the northern ecclesiastical province of the Church of England, a role it has retained.[1]

In the 19th century, York became a hub of the railway network and a confectionery manufacturing centre. The economy of York is now dominated by services. The University of York and National Health Service are major employers, whilst tourism has become an important element of the local economy.

The City of York local government district includes rural areas beyond the old city boundaries. In 2011, it had a population of 198,051.[2]

Contents

Local government

the text in this section is based on an article in Wikipedia

York is the traditional county town of Yorkshire, and therefore did not form part of any of its three historic ridings, or divisions. Its Mayor has had the status of Lord Mayor since 1370. York is an ancient borough, and was reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835 to form a :municipal borough. It gained the status of a county borough in 1889, under the Local Government Act 1888, and existed so until 1974, when, under the Local Government Act 1972, it became a non-metropolitan district in the county of North Yorkshire, whilst retaining its Lord Mayor, its Sheriff and Aldermen.

As a result of 1990s UK local government reform, York regained unitary status and saw a substantial alteration in its borders, taking in parts of Selby and Harrogate Districts, and about half the population of the Ryedale District.

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Origin of the name

The word York (Old Norse: Jórvík) is derived from the Brittonic name Eburākon (Latinised variously as Eboracum, Eburacum or Eburaci), a combination of eburos "yew-tree" (cf. Old Irish ibar "yew-tree", Welsh efwr "alder buckthorn", Breton evor "alder buckthorn") and a suffix of appurtenance *-āko(n) "belonging to-, place of-" (cf. Welsh -og) meaning either "place of the yew trees" (cf. efrog in Welsh, eabhrac in Irish Gaelic and eabhraig in Scottish Gaelic, by which names the city is known in those languages); or alternatively, "the settlement of (a man named) Eburos" (a Celtic personal name is mentioned in different documents as Eβουρος, Eburus and Eburius and, when combined with the Celtic possessive suffix *-āko(n), could be used to denote his property).[3]

The name Eboracum became the Anglian Eoforwic in the 7th century: a compound of Eofor-, from the old name, and -wic a village, probably by conflation of the element Ebor- with a Germanic root *eburaz (boar); by the 7th century the Old English for 'boar' had become eofor. When the Danish army conquered the city in 866, its name became Jórvík.

The Old French and Norman name of the city following the Norman Conquest was recorded as "Everwic" (modern Norman "Évèroui") in works such as Wace's Roman de Rou. Jórvík, meanwhile, gradually reduced to York in the centuries after the Conquest, moving from the Middle English Yerk in the 14th century through Yourke in the 16th century to Yarke in the 17th century. The form York was first recorded in the 13th century. Many company and place names, such as the Ebor race meeting, refer to the Latinised Brittonic, Roman name.

The 12th‑century chronicler Geoffrey of Monmouth, in his fictional account of the prehistoric kings of Britain, , suggests the name derives from that of a pre-Roman city founded by the legendary king Ebraucus.

The Archbishop of York uses Ebor as his surname in his signature.

Early history

Archaeological evidence suggests that Mesolithic people settled in the region of York between 8000 and 7000 BC, although it is not known whether their settlements were permanent or temporary. By the time of the Roman conquest of Britain, the area was occupied by a tribe known to the Romans as the Brigantes. The Brigantian tribal area initially became a Roman client state, but later its leaders became more hostile and the Roman Ninth Legion was sent north of the Humber into Brigantian territory.

The city was founded in 71 AD, when the Ninth Legion conquered the Brigantes and constructed a wooden military fortress on flat ground above the River Ouse close to its confluence with the River Foss. The fortress, whose walls were rebuilt in stone by the VI legion based there subsequent to the IX legion, covered an area of and was inhabited by 6,000 legionary soldiers. The site of the principia (HQ) of the fortress lies under the foundations of York Minster, and excavations in the undercroft have revealed part of the Roman structure and columns.[4][5]


The Emperors Hadrian, Septimius Severus and Constantius I all held court in York during their various campaigns. During his stay 207–211 AD, the Emperor Severus proclaimed York capital of the province of Britannia Inferior, and it is likely that it was he who granted York the privileges of a 'colonia' or city. Constantius I died in 306 AD during his stay in York, and his son Constantine the Great was proclaimed Emperor by the troops based in the fortress. In 314 AD a bishop from York attended the Council at Arles to represent Christians from the province.

While the Roman colonia and fortress were located on high ground, by 400 AD the town was victim to occasional flooding from the Rivers Ouse and Foss, and the population reduced. York declined in the post-Roman era, and was taken and settled by the Angles in the 5th century.

Reclamation of parts of the town was initiated in the 7th century under King Edwin of Northumbria, and York became his chief city. The first wooden minster church was built in York for the baptism of Edwin in 627, according to the Venerable Bede. Edwin ordered the small wooden church be rebuilt in stone; however, he was killed in 633, and the task of completing the stone minster fell to his successor Oswald.[4][6] In the following century, Alcuin of York came to the cathedral school of York. He had a long career as a teacher and scholar, first at the school at York now known as St Peter's School, founded in 627 AD, and later as Charlemagne's leading advisor on ecclesiastical and educational affairs.

In 866, Northumbria was in the midst of internecine struggles when the Vikings raided and captured York. Under Viking rule the city became a major river port, part of the extensive Viking trading routes throughout northern Europe. The last ruler of an independent Jórvík, Eric Bloodaxe, was driven from the city in 954 AD by King Eadred in his successful attempt to complete the unification of England.

After the conquest

In 1068, two years after the Norman conquest of England, the people of York rebelled. Initially they were successful, but upon the arrival of William the Conqueror the rebellion was put down. William at once built a wooden fortress on a motte. In 1069, after another rebellion, the king built another timbered castle across the River Ouse. These were destroyed in 1069 and rebuilt by William about the time of his ravaging Northumbria in what is called the "Harrying of the North" where he destroyed everything from York to Durham. The remains of the rebuilt castles, now in stone, are visible on either side of the River Ouse. See Peter Rex's The English Resistance, The Underground War Against the Normans, 2006.

The first stone minster church was badly damaged by fire in the uprising, and the Normans built a minster on a new site. Around the year 1080, Archbishop Thomas started building the cathedral that in time became the current Minster.


In the 12th century York started to prosper. In 1190, York Castle was the site of an infamous massacre of its Jewish inhabitants, in which at least 150 Jews died (although some authorities put the figure as high as 500).


The city, through its location on the River Ouse and its proximity to the Great North Road, became a major trading centre. King John granted the city's first charter in 1212, confirming trading rights in England and Europe.[6] During the later Middle Ages, York merchants imported wine from France, cloth, wax, canvas, and oats from the Low Countries, timber and furs from the Baltic and exported grain to Gascony and grain and wool to the Low Countries.

York became a major cloth manufacturing and trading centre. Edward I further stimulated the city's economy by using the city as a base for his war in Scotland. The city was the location of significant unrest during the so-called Peasants' Revolt in 1381. The city acquired an increasing degree of autonomy from central government including the privileges granted by a charter of Richard II in 1396.

16th to 18th centuries

The city underwent a period of economic decline during Tudor times. Under King Henry VIII, the Dissolution of the Monasteries saw the end of York's many monastic houses, including several orders of friars, the hospitals of St Nicholas and of St Leonard, the largest such institution in the north of England. This led to the Pilgrimage of Grace, an uprising of northern Catholics in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire opposed to religious reform. Henry VIII restored his authority by establishing the Council of the North in York in the dissolved St Mary's Abbey. The city became a trading and service centre during this period.[7]

Guy Fawkes, who was born and educated in York, was a member of a group of Roman Catholic restorationists that planned the Gunpowder Plot. Its aim was to displace Protestant rule by blowing up the Houses of Parliament while King James I, the entire Protestant, and even most of the Catholic aristocracy and nobility were inside.

In 1644, during the Civil War, the Parliamentarians besieged York, and many medieval houses outside the city walls were lost. The barbican at Walmgate Bar was undermined and explosives laid, but, the plot was discovered. On the arrival of Prince Rupert, with an army of 15,000 men, the siege was lifted. The Parliamentarians retreated some from York with Rupert in pursuit, before turning on his army and soundly defeating it at the Battle of Marston Moor. Of Rupert's 15,000 troops, no fewer than 4,000 were killed and 1,500 captured. The siege was renewed; the city could not hold out for much longer, and surrendered to Sir Thomas Fairfax[8] on 15 July.

Following the restoration of the monarchy in 1660, and the removal of the garrison from York in 1688, the city was dominated by the gentry and merchants, although the clergy were still important. Competition from Leeds and Hull, together with silting of the River Ouse, resulted in York losing its pre-eminent position as a trading centre but the city's role as the social and cultural centre for wealthy northerners was on the rise. York's many elegant townhouses, such as the Lord Mayor's Mansion House and Fairfax House date from this period, as do the Assembly Rooms, the Theatre Royal, and the racecourse.

During this general time period, the American city of New York and the colony that contained it were renamed after the Duke of York (later King James II).

Modern history

The railway promoter George Hudson was responsible for bringing the railway to York in 1839. Although Hudson's career as a railway entrepreneur ended in disgrace and bankruptcy, his promotion of York over Leeds, and of his own railway company (the York and North Midland Railway), helped establish York as a major railway centre by the late 19th century.


The introduction of the railways established engineering in the city. At the turn of the 20th century, the railway accommodated the headquarters and works of the North Eastern Railway, which employed more than 5,500 people. The railway was instrumental in the expansion of Rowntree's Cocoa Works. It was founded in 1862 by Henry Isaac Rowntree, who was joined in 1869 by his brother the philanthropist Joseph. Another chocolate manufacturer, Terry's of York, was a major employer.[7][9] By 1900, the railways and confectionery had become the city's two major industries.[10]

With the emergence of tourism, the historic core of York became one of the city's major assets, and in 1968 it was designated a conservation area. The existing tourist attractions were supplemented by the establishment of the National Railway Museum in York in 1975, the Jorvik Viking Centre in 1984 and the York Dungeon in 1986. The opening of the University of York in 1963 added to the prosperity of the city. In March 2012, York's Chocolate Story opened.

York was voted European Tourism City of the Year by European Cities Marketing in June 2007, beating 130 other European cities to gain first place, surpassing Gothenburg in Sweden (second) and Valencia in Spain (third). York was also voted safest place to visit in the 2010 Condé Nast Traveller Readers’ Choice Awards. In 2018, The Sunday Times deemed York to be its overall 'Best Place to Live' in Britain, highlighting the city's "perfect mix of heritage and hi-tech" and as a "mini-metropolis with cool cafes, destination restaurants, innovative companies – plus the fastest internet in Britain". The result was confirmed in a YouGov survey, reported in August 2018, with 92% of respondents saying that they liked the city, more than any of 56 other British cities.

Early photography

York was a centre of early photography, as described by Hugh Murray in his 1986 book Photographs and Photographers of York: The Early Years, 1844–79. Photographers who had studios in York included William Hayes, William Pumphrey, and Augustus Mahalski who operated on Davygate and Low Petergate in the 19th century, having come to England as a refugee after serving as a Polish lancer in the Austro-Hungarian war.

Research Tips

Nineteenth century censuses and civil registration areas

During the 19th century 29 ecclesiastical parishes within York and its immediate environs were also recognized as civil parishes, and are to be found in the UK Free BMD Index and on censuses. See the long list of civil parishes within York on the right toward the top of the page. They are provided so that they can be quoted directly when sources are requested here in WeRelate.

Yorkshire Victoria County Histories

The Victoria County Histories was a publication project that began in the early 20th century. Some volumes (but not all) are available online through the Institute of Historical Research of the School of Advanced Study of the University of London. They contain a great deal of information about the ownership of manors within individual parishes and quite often include family trees of the landowning inhabitants. The volumes available for Yorkshire cover the North and East Ridings and the City of York and are as follows:

A History of the County of York: the City of York
The volume takes both a chronological and a thematic approach to the history of the City of York from before the Norman Conquest to the twentieth century.

A History of the County of York: Volume 3
A part volume from the VCH, dealing with religious houses in the County of York, including York and Beverley minsters, and the prominent Cistercian houses Rievaulx and Fountains.

A History of the County of York East Riding: Volume 1, the City of Kingston Upon Hull A chronological and thematic account of the history of the city of Hull, along with topographical accounts of several outlying villages.

A History of the County of York East Riding: Volume 3, Ouse and Derwent Wapentake, and Part of Harthill Wapentake
The volume covers a large area in the Vale of York, lying to the south and east of the city. The area stretches from Catton in the north to Hemingborough in the south, and includes some areas which now form suburbs of York, including Fulford and Heslington.

A History of the County of York East Riding: Volume 6, the Borough and Liberties of Beverley
Beverley stood high among the provincial towns of medieval England, with the great minster church and the college of St. John.

A History of the County of York East Riding: Volume 7, Holderness Wapentake, Middle and North Divisions
Covers the area of the East Riding between the north sea to the east and the the river Hull to the west, bordering the borough of Kingston-upon-Hull.

A History of the County of York North Riding: Volume 1
The first of two volumes, covering six wapentakes in the western half of the North Riding. It includes an account of the borough of Richmond.

A History of the County of York North Riding: Volume 2
Describes five wapentakes, mainly in the north and east of the North Riding. It includes accounts of the borough of Scarborough and the liberty of Whitby, as well as the North Yorkshire moors and parts of Cleveland.

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