Place:Tucson, Pima, Arizona, United States

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NameTucson
Alt namesChuk Shonsource: Encyclopædia Britannica (1988) XII, 27
Fucsonsource: USGS, GNIS Digital Gazetteer (1994) GNIS4023356
Lucsonsource: USGS, GNIS Digital Gazetteer (1994) GNIS4023356
Old Pueblosource: Encyclopædia Britannica (1988) XII, 27
San Augustín de Tuguisonsource: Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1988) p 1233
San Casme del Tucsonsource: USGS, GNIS Digital Gazetteer (1994) GNIS4023356
Stjukshonsource: Encyclopædia Britannica (1988) XII, 27
Teusonsource: USGS, GNIS Digital Gazetteer (1994) GNIS4023356
Toisonsource: USGS, GNIS Digital Gazetteer (1994) GNIS4023356
Tuczonsource: USGS, GNIS Digital Gazetteer (1994) GNIS4023356
Tugsonsource: USGS, GNIS Digital Gazetteer (1994) GNIS4023356
Tuguisonsource: USGS, GNIS Digital Gazetteer (1994) GNIS4023356
Tuisonsource: USGS, GNIS Digital Gazetteer (1994) GNIS4023356
Tulqusonsource: USGS, GNIS Digital Gazetteer (1994) GNIS4023356
Tuozonsource: USGS, GNIS Digital Gazetteer (1994) GNIS4023356
Tuquissonsource: USGS, GNIS Digital Gazetteer (1994) GNIS4023356
Tuqulsonsource: USGS, GNIS Digital Gazetteer (1994) GNIS4023356
TypeInhabited place
Coordinates32.217°N 110.917°W
Located inPima, Arizona, United States
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Tucson is a city and the county seat of Pima County, Arizona, United States, and home to the University of Arizona. The 2010 United States Census put the population at 520,116,[1] while the 2015 estimated population of the entire Tucson metropolitan statistical area (MSA) was 980,263. The Tucson MSA forms part of the larger Tucson-Nogales combined statistical area (CSA), with a total population of 1,010,025 as of the 2010 Census. Tucson is the second-largest populated city in Arizona behind Phoenix, both of which anchor the Arizona Sun Corridor. The city is southeast of Phoenix and north of the U.S.–Mexico border.[2] Tucson is the 33rd largest city and the 58th largest metropolitan area in the United States (2014).

Major incorporated suburbs of Tucson include Oro Valley and Marana northwest of the city, Sahuarita south of the city, and South Tucson in an enclave south of downtown. Communities in the vicinity of Tucson (some within or overlapping the city limits) include Casas Adobes, Catalina Foothills, Flowing Wells, Midvale Park, Tanque Verde, Tortolita, and Vail. Towns outside the Tucson metro area include Benson to the southeast, Catalina and Oracle to the north, and Green Valley to the south.

The Spanish name of the city, Tucsón , is derived from the O'odham Cuk Ṣon , meaning "(at the) base of the black [hill]", a reference to a basalt-covered hill now known as Sentinel Peak, also known as "A" Mountain. Tucson is sometimes referred to as "The Old Pueblo".

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Tucson was probably first visited by Paleo-Indians, known to have been in southern Arizona about 12,000 years ago. Recent archaeological excavations near the Santa Cruz River found a village site dating from 2100 BC. The floodplain of the Santa Cruz River was extensively farmed during the Early Agricultural Period, circa 1200 BC to AD 150. These people constructed irrigation canals and grew corn, beans, and other crops while gathering wild plants and hunting. The Early Ceramic period occupation of Tucson saw the first extensive use of pottery vessels for cooking and storage. The groups designated as the Hohokam lived in the area from AD 600 to 1450 and are known for their vast irrigation canal systems and their red-on-brown pottery.

Jesuit missionary Eusebio Francisco Kino visited the Santa Cruz River valley in 1692, and founded the Mission San Xavier del Bac in 1700 about upstream from the site of the settlement of Tucson. A separate Convento settlement was founded downstream along the Santa Cruz River, near the base of what is now "A" mountain. Hugo O'Conor, the founding father of the city of Tucson, Arizona authorized the construction of a military fort in that location, Presidio San Agustín del Tucsón, on August 20, 1775 (near the present downtown Pima County Courthouse). During the Spanish period of the presidio, attacks such as the Second Battle of Tucson were repeatedly mounted by Apaches. Eventually the town came to be called "Tucson" and became a part of the state of Sonora after Mexico gained independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821.

Tucson was captured by Philip St. George Cooke with the Mormon Battalion during the Mexican–American War in 1846-1848, but it soon returned to Mexican control as Cooke continued his mission westward establishing Cooke's Wagon Road to California. Tucson was not included in the Mexican Cession and Cooke's road through Tucson became one of the important routes into California during the California Gold Rush of 1849.

Arizona, south of the Gila River, was obtained via treaty from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase on June 8, 1854. Tucson became a part of the United States of America, although the American military did not formally take over control until March 1856. In 1857, Tucson became a stage station on the San Antonio-San Diego Mail Line and in 1858 became 3rd division headquarters of the Butterfield Overland Mail until the line shut down in March 1861. The Overland Mail Corporation attempted to continue running, however, following the Bascom Affair, devastating Apache attacks on the stations and coaches ended operations in August 1861.

From August 1861 to mid-1862, Tucson was the western capital of the Confederate Arizona Territory, the eastern capital being Mesilla. In 1862, the California Column drove the Confederate forces out of Arizona. Tucson and all of what is now Arizona were part of New Mexico Territory until 1863, when they became part of the new Arizona Territory. From 1867 to 1877, Tucson was the capital of the Arizona Territory. Tucson was incorporated in 1877, making it the oldest incorporated city in Arizona.

From 1877 to 1878, the area suffered a rash of stagecoach robberies. Most notable were the two holdups committed by masked road-agent William Whitney Brazelton. Brazelton held up two stages in the summer of 1878 near Point of Mountain Station approximately northwest of Tucson. John Clum, of Tombstone, Arizona fame was one of the passengers. Pima County Sheriff Charles A. Shibell and his citizen posse killed Brazelton on Monday August 19, 1878, in a mesquite bosque along the Santa Cruz River south of Tucson. Brazelton had been suspected of highway robbery in the Tucson area, the Prescott region and Silver City, New Mexico area. Brazelton's crimes prompted John J. Valentine, Sr. of Wells, Fargo & Co. to send special agent and future Pima County sheriff Bob Paul to investigate.[3] Fort Lowell, then east of Tucson, was established to help protect settlers from Apache attacks.

In 1882, Frank Stilwell was implicated in the murder of Morgan Earp by Cowboy Pete Spence's wife, Marietta, at the coroner's inquest on Morgan Earp's shooting. The coroner's jury concluded Spence, Stilwell, Frederick Bode, and Florentino "Indian Charlie" Cruz were the prime suspects in the assassination of Morgan Earp.

Deputy U.S. Marshal Wyatt Earp gathered a few trusted friends and accompanied Virgil Earp and his family as they traveled to Benson for a train ride to California. They found Stilwell lying in wait for Virgil in the Tucson station and killed him on the tracks. After killing Stilwell, Wyatt deputized others and rode on a vendetta, killing three more cowboys over the next few days before leaving the state.

In 1885, the University of Arizona was founded as a land-grant college on over-grazed ranch land between Tucson and Fort Lowell.

In 1890, Asians made up 4.2% of the city's population.

By 1900, 7,531 people lived in the city. The population increased to 13,913 in 1910. At about this time, the U.S. Veterans Administration had begun construction on the present Veterans Hospital. The city's clean, dry air attracted many veterans who had been gassed in World War I and needed respiratory therapy. The city continued to grow, with the population increasing to 20,292 in 1920 and 36,818 in 1940. In 2006, the population of Pima County, in which Tucson is located, passed one million, while the City of Tucson's population was 535,000.

In 1912, when Arizona statehood became reality, the number of flags that had flown over Tucson now numbered five: American, Spanish, Mexican, Confederate, and the State of Arizona.


During the territorial and early statehood periods, Tucson was Arizona's largest city and commercial center, while Phoenix was the seat of state government (beginning in 1889) and agriculture. The establishment of Tucson Municipal Airport increased its prominence. Between 1910 and 1920, Phoenix surpassed Tucson in population, and has continued to outpace Tucson in growth. In recent years, both Tucson and Phoenix have experienced some of the highest growth rates in the United States.

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