Place:Shepton Mallet, Somerset, England

NameShepton Mallet
Alt namesShepton-Malletsource: Family History Library Catalog
Shepunsource: Family History Library Catalog
TypeTown, Urban district
Coordinates51.2°N 2.55°W
Located inSomerset, England
See alsoMendip, Somerset, Englanddistrict in which Shepton Mallet located since 1974
Contained Places
Cannards Grave
Ham ( ? - present )
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Shepton Mallet is a small rural town and civil parish in the Mendip district of Somerset in South West England. Situated approximately 18 mi (29 km) south of Bristol and 5 mi (8.0 km) east of Wells, the town is estimated to have a population of 9,700. It contains the administrative headquarters of Mendip District Council. Bowlish is a hamlet on the A371 road between Shepton Mallet and Croscombe.

The Mendip Hills lie to the north, and the River Sheppey runs through the town. Shepton Mallet lies on the route of the Fosse Way, the principal Roman road into the south west of England, and there is evidence of Roman settlement. The town contains a fine parish church and a considerable number of listed buildings. Shepton Mallet Prison is England's oldest prison still in use.

In medieval times, the wool trade was important in the town's economy, although this declined in the 18th century to be replaced by other industries such as brewing; the town continues to be a major centre for the production of cider.

Shepton Mallet is in the Mendip local government district which is part of the county of Somerset. In the 80 years prior to 1974, the town had fallen within Shepton Mallet Urban District.



the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

The name Shepton derives from the Old English scoep and tun, meaning "sheep farm"; the Domesday Book of 1086 records a settlement known as Sceaptun. The current spelling is recorded at least as far back as 1496, in a letter from Henry VII. The second part of the name derives from that of the Norman Malet family who took a lease from Glastonbury Abbey around 1100. The second letter "l" appears to have been added to the spelling in the 16th century.

Prehistoric settlement

Archaeological investigations have found evidence for prehistoric activity in the Shepton Mallet area, with substantial amounts of Neolithic flint being found, as well as some pottery fragments from the late-Neolithic period. The two barrows on Barren Down, to the north of the town centre contained cremation burials from the bronze age and another bronze age burial site contained a skeleton and some pottery. The remains of iron age roundhouses and artefacts such as quernstones and beads were found at Cannard's Grave and a probable iron age farm settlement enclosure has been identified at Field Farm. In the countryside surrounding the town, there is evidence of iron age cave dwellings in Ham Woods, to the north-west, and a number of burial mounds have been identified at Beacon Hill, a short distance north of the town.

Roman occupation

Shepton Mallet is approximately halfway between the Roman towns of Bath and Ilchester on the Fosse Way, and although there are no visible remains (apart from the line of the Roman road), there is archaeological evidence for early military and later civilian settlement lasting into the 5th century. Domed pottery kilns, with pottery still in situ, were identified on the site of the Anglo-Bavarian Brewery in the mid-19th century, suggesting military activity in the 1st and 2nd centuries. Several hoards of Roman coins ranging from the 1st to 4th centuries have been found and more than 300 fibula brooches, potsherds and other artefacts. A few isolated burials near the route of the Fosse Way were found during the 19th century.[1]

A lead coffin in a rock-cut grave was discovered at a site adjacent to the Fosse Way in 1988. This discovery, and the impending commercial development of the site by the landowner, Showerings, led archaeologists to undertake more extensive excavations in the 1990s. The grave was part of a larger cemetery which contained 17 burials lying on a rough east-west alignment, indicating probable Christian adherence. Two other, smaller, cemeteries contained graves aligned north-south, possibly signifying pagan religious practices. One burial was in a substantial stone coffin which had been positioned beneath a mausoleum, the foundations of which remained.[1]

A notable find in the Fosse Way burials was a Chi-Rho amulet, at the time thought to be from the 5th century, and considered to be among the earliest definite evidence of Christianity in England.[2] A copy of the amulet was presented to the Archbishop of Canterbury, George Carey, by the churches of the Diocese of Bath and Wells. Although the amulet is in the Museum of Somerset, analysis by Liverpool University in 2008 using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy demonstrated that it was a hoax, as its silver content dated to the 19th century or later.

Excavations in the 1990s confirmed the presence of a linear settlement, stretching along the Fosse Way for perhaps a kilometre, comprising cobbled streets, wooden and stone workshops and houses (some with two storeys) containing hearths and ovens, industrial areas, and a stone-lined well. A great many artefacts were found, including local and imported pottery (such as samian ware), items of jewellery such as brooches, rings and bracelets, toilet items including tweezers, ear scoops and nail cleaners, bronze and iron tools, and a lead ingot which probably originated from the Roman lead mines on the Mendip Hills. Coins minted across the Roman empire were also found. The finds on the site indicate occupation from the late-1st or early-2nd centuries to the late-4th or early-5th centuries. As no public buildings were found, the settlement was probably not a town.[1][2]

Saxon and Norman periods

Evidence of Saxon settlement in the town includes some Saxon stonework in the parish church of St Peter and St Paul.[1] A charter of King Ine of Wessex, from 706, witnessed by nine bishops including the Archbishop of Canterbury, records the granting of the area in which Shepton Mallet is now situated to Abbot Berwald of Glastonbury Abbey. According to some legends Indract of Glastonbury was buried in Shepton. The town was in the Whitstone Hundred, and the hundred courts were held at Cannard's Grave, a short distance to the south of the town.

The Exeter Domesday Book records that, at the death of Edward the Confessor in 1066, the site was held (probably by lease from the Abbey) by one Uluert, and by Roger de Corcella at the time of the survey in 1086. When Roger de Corcella died, sometime before or around 1100, the land passed to the Malets, a prominent Norman family whose name was added to that of the settlement (and another of their holdings, Curi – now Curry Mallet).[3]

Middle Ages

The Malets retained the estate until the reign of King John, when on the death of William Malet (fl. 1192–1215) (and on the payment by his sons-in-law of a fine of two thousand marks, due to his participation in a rebellion against the king) it passed through his daughter Mabel to her husband Hugh de Vivonne. Some generations later, the part of the estate containing Shepton Mallet was sold to a relative, Sir Thomas Gournay. His son, also called Thomas, participated in the murder of Edward II and his estates were confiscated by Edward III in 1337. The family regained favour with the king some years later and the lands were returned. When Mathew de Gournay died childless in 1406, the estate reverted to the Crown, before being granted to Sir John de Tiptoft. It was again confiscated from his son by Henry VI during the Wars of the Roses (when the family sided with Edward IV), but was restored to Sir John's grandson, Edward Tiptoft, when Edward IV regained the throne. He died without issue, and there followed a succession of grants and reversions until Glastonbury Abbey was dissolved by Henry VIII, and its lands, including Shepton Mallet, were granted to the Duchy of Cornwall in 1536.[4]

Charters for holding markets and fairs were granted in 1235 (though this charter was revoked following objections by the Bishop of Wells because of the competition it represented to the market in that city), 1260 and 1318, and indicate that the town was developing and prospering in the 13th and early 14th centuries.[1] The Black Death struck the town in 1348, reducing the population to about 300. In the late-14th and early-15th centuries, the population and economy were bolstered by the arrival of craftsmen and merchants from France and the Low Countries who came to escape wars and religious persecution in their home countries. They introduced cloth-making which, together with the local wool trade, became a major industry in Shepton and other towns in Somerset and Wiltshire. Wool became such a source of riches for the town that when, in 1496, Henry VII needed to raise money to fight the Scots, he called on the wool-merchants of Shepton to contribute £10 to the cause:

Civil War and the Monmouth Rebellion

In 1625, a House of Correction was established in Shepton Mallet.

In the English Civil War the town supported the parliamentary side, although Shepton appears to have mostly escaped conflict apart from a bloodless confrontation between supporters of the King, led by Sir Ralph Hopton, and Parliament, led by Colonel William Strode, in the market place on 1 August 1642. In 1645 Sir Thomas Fairfax led the New Model Army through the town on the way to capturing Bristol,[5] and in 1646 the church organ was apparently destroyed by Cromwellian soldiers.

During the Monmouth Rebellion in 1685, the Duke of Monmouth was welcomed when he passed through Shepton Mallet, staying in Longbridge House in Cowl Street on the night of 23 June, with his men quartered throughout the town, before setting out for Bristol the following day. Many Shepton men joined the cause, but Monmouth failed to take Bath or Bristol and had to return to Shepton on 30 June. Following the Battle of Sedgemoor, the Duke fled and spent the night of 6 July at Downside, a mile north of Shepton, before continuing his flight for two more days before his capture. Following the Bloody Assizes, twelve local supporters of Monmouth were hanged and quartered in the Market Place of the town.

In 1699 Edward Strode built almshouses, close to the rectory his family had built to house the town's grammar school, which lasted until 1900.[5]

18th–20th centuries

In the 17th and 18th centuries the wool and cloth industries continued to thrive, powered by the waters of the River Sheppey. There were reputed to be 50 mills in the town and surrounding area in the early 18th century, and a number of fine clothiers' houses survive, particularly in Bowlish, a hamlet on the western edge of Shepton Mallet.[6] Although these industries employed some 4,000 people towards the end of the century, they were already beginning to decline by this time. Discontent at the mechanisation of the mills resulted in the deaths of two men in a riot in the town in 1775, an event which apparently discouraged the mill-owners from modernising further. The decision resulted in Shepton's cloth trade losing out to the steam-powered mills in the north of England in the early 19th century.[7] The manufacture of silk and crepe revived the town's fortunes somewhat, and Shepton's mills manufactured the silk used in Queen Victoria's wedding dress. However these industries also died out eventually.

While wool, cloth and silk were declining, other industries were growing, and in the 19th and 20th centuries brewing, in particular, became one of the town's major industries. The Anglo-Bavarian Brewery, built in 1864 and still a local landmark, was the first in England to brew lager. At its height, the brewery was exporting 1.8 million bottles a year to Australia, New Zealand, India, South Africa, South America and the West Indies. It closed in 1921. However the town, which is the home of Babycham, is still an important centre for cider production.

For a period during World War II, Shepton Mallet Prison was used to store important national records from the Public Record Office, including the Magna Carta, the Domesday Book, the logbooks of , dispatches from the Battle of Waterloo and the "scrap of paper" signed by Hitler and British prime minister Neville Chamberlain at the Munich Conference of September 1938. The prison also became a US Army detention facility, and between 1943 and 1945, 18 American servicemen were executed within the prison walls, having been convicted by US court-martial of murder, rape or both.[8]

In the 1960s and 1970s many historic buildings were demolished in order to build Hillmead council estate in the north of the town, and a retail development and theatre in the market place.

The population of Shepton Mallet was fairly stable through the 19th century and the first part of the 20th: in 1801, it was 5,104 and in 1851 only slightly more at 5,117, although by 1901 it had swelled to 5,446, before falling back to 5,260 in 1951. By 2001, it had increased significantly to 8,981.[9]

Research Tips

  • The Somerset Heritage Centre (incorporating what was formerly the Somerset Record Office and the Somerset Local Studies Library) can be found at its new location at Langford Mead in Taunton. It has an online search facility leading to pages of interest, including maps from the First and Second Ordnance Survey (select "Maps and Postcards" from the list at the left, then enter the parish in the search box).
    The Heritage Centre has an email address:
  • Three maps on the A Vision of Britain through Time website illustrate the changes in political boundaries over the period 1830-1945. All have expanding scales and on the second and third this facility is sufficient that individual parishes can be inspected.
  • Somerset Hundreds as drawn in 1832. This map was prepared before The Great Reform Act of that year. Note the polling places and representation of the various parts of the county.
  • Somerset in 1900, an Ordnance Survey map showing rural districts, the boundaries of the larger towns, the smaller civil parishes of the time, and some hamlets and villages in each parish
  • Somerset in 1943, an Ordnance Survey map showing the rural districts after the changes to their structure in the 1930s
source: Family History Library Catalog
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