Place:Paterson, Passaic, New Jersey, United States

Watchers


NamePaterson
Alt namesGreat Fallssource: USGS, GNIS Digital Gazetteer (1994) GNIS34005287
Lake Viewsource: Family History Library Catalog
New Manchestersource: USGS, GNIS Digital Gazetteer (1994) GNIS34005287
Totowasource: USGS, GNIS Digital Gazetteer (1994) GNIS34005287
TypeCity
Coordinates40.916°N 74.163°W
Located inPassaic, New Jersey, United States     (1791 - )
Contained Places
Cemetery
Cedar Lawn Cemetery
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Paterson is the largest city in and the county seat of Passaic County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, its population was 146,199,[1][2][3] making it New Jersey's third-most-populous city. Paterson has the second-highest density of any U.S. city with over 100,000 people, behind only New York City. For 2017, the Census Bureau's Population Estimates Program calculated a population of 148,678, an increase of 1.7% from the 2010 enumeration,[4] making the city the 174th-most-populous in the nation.

Paterson is known as the "Silk City" for its dominant role in silk production during the latter half of the 19th century. It has since evolved into a major destination for Hispanic immigrants as well as for immigrants from India, South Asia, and the Arab and Muslim world. Paterson has the second-largest Muslim population in the United States by percentage.

Contents

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

The area of Paterson was inhabited by the Algonquian-speaking Native American Acquackanonk tribe of the Lenape, also known as the Delaware Indians. The land was known as the Lenapehoking. The Dutch claimed the land as New Netherlands, then the British as the Province of New Jersey.

Establishment

In 1791 Alexander Hamilton (1755/57–1804), first United States Secretary of the Treasury, helped found the Society for the Establishment of Useful Manufactures (S.U.M.), which helped encourage the harnessing of energy from the Great Falls of the Passaic River to secure economic independence from British manufacturers. The society founded Paterson, which became the cradle of the industrial revolution in America. Paterson was named for William Paterson, statesman, signer of the Constitution and Governor of New Jersey, who signed the 1792 charter that established the Town of Paterson.

Architect, engineer and city planner Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant (1754–1825), who had earlier developed the initial plans for Washington, D.C., was the first planner for the S.U.M. project. His plan proposed to harness the power of the Great Falls through a channel in the rock and an aqueduct. The society's directors felt he was taking too long and was over budget, and he was replaced by Peter Colt, who used a less complicated reservoir system to get the water flowing to factories in 1794. Eventually Colt's system developed some problems and a scheme resembling L'Enfant's original plan was used after 1846.

Paterson was originally formed as a township from portions of Acquackanonk Township on April 11, 1831, while the area was still part of Essex County. It became part of newly created Passaic County on February 7, 1837, and was incorporated as a city on April 14, 1851, based on the results of a referendum held that day. The city was reincorporated on March 14, 1861.

Industrial growth

The industries developed in Paterson were powered by the 77-foot-high Great Falls and a system of water raceways that harnessed the falls' power, providing power for the mills in the area until 1914 and fostering the growth of the city around them. The district originally included dozens of mill buildings and other manufacturing structures associated with the textile industry and, later, the firearms, silk and railroad locomotive manufacturing industries. In the latter half of the 19th century silk production became the dominant industry and formed the basis of Paterson's most prosperous period, earning it the nickname "Silk City."

In 1835 Samuel Colt began producing firearms in Paterson, but within a few years he moved his business to Hartford, Connecticut. Later in the 19th century Paterson was the site of early experiments with submarines by Irish-American inventor John Philip Holland. Two of Holland's early models—one found at the bottom of the Passaic River—are on display in the Paterson Museum, housed in the former Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works near the Passaic Falls.

Behind Newark and New York, the brewing industry was booming in Paterson in the late 1800s. Braun Brewery, Sprattler & Mennell, Graham Brewery, The Katz Brothers, and Burton Brewery merged in 1890 to form Paterson Consolidated Brewing Company. Hinchliffe Brewing and Malting Company, founded in 1861, produced 75,000 barrels a year from its state-of-the-art facility at 63 Governor Street. All the breweries closed after Prohibition.

The city was a mecca for immigrant laborers, who worked in its factories, particularly Italian weavers from the Naples region. Paterson was the site of historic labor unrest that focused on anti-child labor legislation, and the six-month-long Paterson silk strike of 1913 that demanded the eight-hour day and better working conditions. It was defeated by the employers, with workers forced to return under pre-strike conditions. Factory workers labored long hours for low wages under dangerous conditions and lived in crowded tenement buildings around the mills. The factories then moved to the South, where there were no labor unions, and still later moved overseas.

In 1919 Paterson was one of eight locations bombed by self-identified anarchists.

Athletics

In 1932 Paterson opened Hinchliffe Stadium, a 10,000-seat stadium named in honor of John V. Hinchliffe, the city's mayor at the time. Hinchliffe Stadium originally served as the site for high school and professional athletic events. From 1933 to 1937 and 1939 to 1945, it was the home of the New York Black Yankees, and from 1935 to 1936 the home of the New York Cubans of the Negro National League. The ballpark was also a venue for professional football games, track and field events, boxing matches, and auto and motorcycle racing.

The comedy team of Bud Abbott and Lou Costello performed at Hinchliffe before boxing matches (Abbott was from the coastal New Jersey city of Asbury Park and Costello was a Paterson native). Hinchliffe is one of only three Negro League stadiums left standing in the United States and is on the National Register of Historic Places. Paterson Public Schools acquired the stadium in 1963 and used it for public school events until 1997, but it is now in disrepair and the schools have been taken over by the state.

Post-World War II era

During World War II Paterson played an important part in the aircraft engine industry, but by the end of the war urban areas were in decline and Paterson was no exception. Since the late 1960s the city has suffered high unemployment rates and white flight.

Competition from malls in upscale neighboring towns like Wayne and Paramus have forced the big chain stores out of Paterson's downtown, once a premier shopping and leisure destination of northern New Jersey. The biggest industries are now small businesses, with the decline of the city's industrial base. But the city still attracts many immigrants, who have revived its economy, especially through small businesses.

The downtown area has been struck by massive fires several times, most recently on January 17, 1991. In this fire nearly a whole city block (bordered on the north and south by Main Street and Washington Street and on the east and west by Ellison Street and College Boulevard, a stretch of Van Houten Street dominated by Passaic County Community College) was engulfed in flames due to an electrical fire in the basement of a bar at 161 Main Street and spread to other buildings. Firefighter John A. Nicosia, 28, of Engine 4 went missing in the fire, having gotten lost in the basement. His body was recovered two days later. A plaque honoring his memory was later placed on a wall near the area. The area was so badly damaged that most of the burned buildings were demolished, with an outdoor mall standing in their place. The most notable of the destroyed buildings was the Meyer Brothers department store, which closed in 1987 and had since been parceled out.

Paterson includes numerous locations listed on the National Register of Historic Places, including museums, civic buildings such as City Hall, Hinchliffe Stadium, Public School Number Two and the Danforth Memorial Library, churches (Cathedral of St. John the Baptist and St. Michael's Roman Catholic Church), individual residences, such as Lambert Castle, and districts of the city, such as the Paterson Downtown Commercial Historic District, the Great Falls/Society for the Establishment of Useful Manufactures Historic District and the Eastside Park Historic District.

In August 2011, Paterson was severely affected in the aftermath of Hurricane Irene, particularly by flooding of the Passaic River, where waters rose to levels unseen for 100 years, leading to the displacement of thousands and the closure of bridges over the river. Touring the area with Federal Emergency Management Agency Administrator Craig Fugate, U.S. Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano declared, "This is as bad as I've seen, and I've been in eight states that have been impacted by Irene." The same day, President Obama declared New Jersey a disaster area, and announced that he would visit the city.

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