Place:Jackson, Florida, United States

Watchers
NameJackson
Alt namesJacksonsource: Getty Vocabulary Program
TypeCounty
Coordinates30.783°N 85.167°W
Located inFlorida, United States     (1822 - )
See alsoHolmes, Florida, United StatesChild county (source: Source:Population of States and Counties of the United States: 1790-1990)
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Jackson County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida, on its northwestern border with Alabama. As of the 2010 census, the population was 49,746. Its county seat is Marianna.

Contents

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Jackson County was created by the Florida Territorial Council in 1822 out of Escambia County, at the same time that Duval County was organized from land of St. Johns County, making them the third and fourth counties in the Territory. The county was named for General Andrew Jackson, a hero of the War of 1812, who had served as Florida's first military governor for six months in 1821. Jackson County originally extended from the Choctawhatchee River on the west to the Suwannee River on the east. By 1840 the county had been reduced close to its present boundaries through the creation of new counties from its original territory, following an increase of population in these areas. Minor adjustments to the county boundaries continued through most of the 19th century, however.

There were no towns in Jackson County when it was formed. The first county court met at what was called "Robinson's Big Spring" (later called Blue Springs) in 1822 and then at the "Big Spring of the Choctawhatchee" in 1823. The following year the county court met at "Chipola Settlement", which is also known as Waddell's Mill Pond.

European Americans developed this area of Florida as part of the plantation belt in the antebellum years. Cotton was cultivated as a commodity crop by large work gangs of enslaved African Americans and Florida became a slave society.

Gradually towns were developed. In January 1821, Webbville had been established as the first town in Jackson County, and it was first designated as the county seat. Marianna was founded by Robert Beveridge, a native of Scotland, in September 1821. It developed about southeast of Webbville. The first county seat thrived until 1828, when Beveridge and other Marianna settlers went to Tallahassee to lobby for the county seat to be moved to Marianna.

They enticed the Florida Legislature with offers of free land, paying to construct a county courthouse and develop a public square, and donating an additional $500 to purchase a quarter section of land to be sold at public auction as a way to finance the new government, if the county seat was moved to Marianna. Beveridge and his supporters succeeded in their civic bribe. Marianna became the de facto county seat of the county justice and civil authority, although it was never officially proclaimed to be such. Marianna began to grow and prosper when the county government moved into the new courthouse in 1829. It became the market and court town for the rural county.

Webbville's prominent citizens moved to Marianna to follow the courts, as did numerous businesses. When the L&N Railroad decided to bypass putting a station at Webbville, the town declined further and became defunct.

Jackson County War

After the Civil War, the county was convulsed by racial violence as insurgents continued the war independently. Confederate veterans resisted freedmen and their sympathizers. The county faced the worst economic conditions in the state, as it had been most extensively developed for cotton plantations before the war, and was adversely affected by the decline in the market.[1] White planters resisted dealing with freedmen as free workers. Insurgent Confederate veterans soon formed a Ku Klux Klan chapter here, and carried out masked violence to exert power, intimidate freedmen and white sympathizers, and restore white supremacy.


Planters were defaulting on tax payments due to the poor economic conditions, and Republican county officials began to sell thousands of acres in tax sales.[1] In addition the two representatives of the Freedmen's Bureau, Charles M. Hamilton and William J. Purman, worked to break the cycle of black labor exploitation. Planters would throw sharecroppers off the land at the end of the season with no payment, claiming infractions that the Bureau deemed minor. The Bureau agents worked to enforce labor contracts.[1]

Tensions broke out into violence and in 1869 Jackson County became the center of a guerrilla war extending through 1871; it became known as the Jackson County War. The local Ku Klux Klan, insurgent Confederate Army veterans, directed their violence at eradicating the Republican Party in the county, assassinating more than 150 Republican Party officials and other prominent African Americans as part of a successful campaign to retain white Democratic power in the county. Another source says that in Jackson County, 200 "leading Republicans" were assassinated in 1869 and 1870 alone; no one was arrested or brought to trial for these crimes.[1]


In testimony to Congressional hearings about the KKK, state senator Charles H. Pearce, minister of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, said, "Satan has his seat; he reigns in Jackson County."[1]

Post-Reconstruction era to present

Violence by whites against blacks in the county continued after Reconstruction. Nine African Americans were lynched here after Reconstruction, most around the turn of the century. But notorious lynchings of individual men took place in 1934, when Claude Neal was tortured, shot and hanged in a spectacle lynching that was announced beforehand on the radio and in a local paper, and 1943, attracting national attention and condemnation. In addition, the lynching of Neal was followed by a riot in Marianna, in which whites attacked the black section of town and blacks on the street, injuring 200, including two police officers. Howard Kester, a prominent Southern evangelical minister who tried to improve conditions, assessed the economic and class issues related to the racial violence.[2] The last lynching victim in the county was Cellos Harrison in Marianna in 1943. The African-American man had been twice convicted by an all-white jury and sentenced to death. He was taken from the county jail by a white mob and hanged while his case was being appealed.

Timeline

Date Event Source
1822 County formed Source:Red Book: American State, County, and Town Sources
1830 First census Source:Population of States and Counties of the United States: 1790-1990
1848 Court records recorded Source:Red Book: American State, County, and Town Sources
1848 Land records recorded Source:Red Book: American State, County, and Town Sources
1848 Marriage records recorded Source:Red Book: American State, County, and Town Sources
1848 Probate records recorded Source:Red Book: American State, County, and Town Sources
1900 No significant boundary changes after this year Source:Population of States and Counties of the United States: 1790-1990

Population History

source: Source:Population of States and Counties of the United States: 1790-1990
Census Year Population
1830 3,907
1840 4,681
1850 6,639
1860 10,209
1870 9,528
1880 14,372
1890 17,544
1900 23,377
1910 29,821
1920 31,224
1930 31,969
1940 34,428
1950 34,645
1960 36,208
1970 34,434
1980 39,154
1990 41,375

Note: Jackson's 1830 population excludes the portion west of Holmes Creek, which was reported with Washington, and includes the portion of Washington on the Chipola and Apalachicola Rivers.

Cemeteries

Cemeteries of Jackson County, Florida, United States

Research Tips

External links

www.jacksoncounty-fl.com


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