Person:Burnham Wardwell (1)

Burnham Wardwell
d.3 OCT 1886 Boston, Suffolk, MA
Facts and Events
Name Burnham Wardwell
Gender Male
Birth[1] 17 DEC 1817 Penobscot, Hancock, ME
Death[2] 3 OCT 1886 Boston, Suffolk, MA
Occupation? Ice Dealer in 1860, Prison Superintendent in 1868, Lecturer in 1886
Burial? Hope Cemetery, Worcester, MA

Died of Consumption. Living on Columbus Avenue in Boston at time of death.

Gravestone Inscription Reads:

"I propose to speak of Massachusetts Institutions as I found them. They are whited sepulchres where I found not dead men's bones, but living men, women and children undergoing daily, yes hourly crucifixion and torment."

"The earliest sites selected to illustrate the theme were 19th-century portraits of the deceased carved into the monuments: like the oval portrait on the obelisk to boot manufacturer Timothy Stone and the relief bust of Burnham Wardwell, an early warden of prisons and insane asylums, carved by celebrated Worcester sculptor Andrew O Connor in the early 1880s -

"Burnham Wardwell died Sunday in Boston, where has has resided for the past 15 years. He was born in Oldstown, Me., 68 years ago. For some time he was deputy sheriff and deputy superintendent of the State prison in Thomaston, Me., and then went to Richmond, Va., where he was engaged in the ice and coal business. At the time of the war, he refused to take the oath of allegiance to the Confederacy, and was put in prison. He escaped from Richmond and offered his services to General Butler. They were accepted. Mr. Wardwell served on the jury that indicted Jeff Davis. After the war, he was made superintendent of the prison in Richmond, but later on removed to Rhode Island, where he became superintendent of the State farm. Of late years, he has worked in aid of unfortunates in prison. He leaves a widow and two sons." -Boston Evening Transcript 04 October 1886.

"Burnham Wardwell, formerly a prison official in several states, died in Boston, Monday, aged 68 years. He was a native of Old Town. At the beginning of the war, he was a resident of Richmond, Va. He refused to swear allegiance to the Confederacy and was imprisoned. He escaped and served under Butler. Afterwards he served on the jury that indicted Jeff Davis. After the war he was Superintendent of the Richmond Peniteniary. Later he was Superintendent of the Rhode Island State farm. He did much for the cause of prison reform" -Bangor Whig & Courier 06 October 1886

The New York Times on 06 June 1866 carries this account of his role on the Grand Jury that indicted Jefferson Davis: "As a matter connected with the burden of this letter, I must refer to the statement now traveling the rounds, to the effect that the two members of the Norfolk Grand Jury living here have been subjected by the citizens to persecutions by reason of the action of that body in the Davis indictment. These statements refer to Messrs. Wardwell and Dudley; and in the case of Mr. Wardwell, the facts appear to be, on the showing of himself and friends, that his business (he being an ice merchant) has fallen off to some extent of late, and that he has received several anonymous letters abusing him in the best--or worst--Billingsgate style, and in some instances warning him to leave the city. So far as I have seen these letters, they emanate evidently from the very lowest sources, the orthography, syntax and chirography being all of a class, and that the lowest. No respectable man has interfered with Mr. Wardwell or threatened him in any way whatever, and if, as is claimed, fifty-five have withdrawn from business connection with him, they have exercised a right, and may or may not have had a political motive. I find some of the best Union men here not to be particularly sorrowful over these alleged persecutions, and would conclude them not to be yet a matter of national concern."

In Richmond, VA at 1860 census working as an Ice Dealer with real estate valued at $1500 and personal estate valued at $2000. 1860 Slave Schedule shows him living in Richmond, owning a 40 year old male slave. Arrested for being a Unionist according to this account in the Richmond Enquirer March 4, 1862, titled "Martial Law over Richmond, Arrest of Suspected Unionists":

"In addition to the parties above-named, the following well-known residents of Richmond were also arrested: Valentine Heckler, a butcher; John M. Higgins, grocer; Burnham Wardwell, dealer in ice; Lewis Dove and Charles J. Mueller. These, too, were arrested at their residences, and confined with those first named, in McDaniels' private jail in the rear of Dickinson & Hill's auction store, on Franklin street below Sixteenth. The prisoners were taken into custody upon an order from Gen. Winder. The nature of the charges against them were not specified, but it is generally understood that they include the holding of treasonable correspondence with the enemy, and abetting the organization of a party having for its object the overthrow of the existing government.

The arrests created considerable excitement throughout the community, and were the absorbing topic of street conversation yesterday, but the propriety of the proceeding was cordially acquiesced in by the great mass of our people, who seem to hail with delight this decided manifestation of vigor on the part of the government.

The fact that the city would be placed under martial law to-day, though extensively rumored, was not positively announced until afternoon, when it was officially confirmed to the general gratification of our citizens."

"Ben Butler spoke in Richmond on Monday night. He was introduced by Wardwell, the particular recommendation to popular favor being (cool icy irony, wasn't it) that he was the murderer of Mumford or, as Wardwell expressed it, that 'he dared inflict the penalty of death upon him who dared pull down the ensign of his country's liberty.' Beast spoke, Wardwell smiled, mob applauded." -Petersburg, Virginia Index 15 January 1868

"Mr. Wardwell qualified on Monday as Superintendent of the Peniteniary, with Franklin Stearns, Esq., as his surety. The amount security required was $30,000." - Petersburg, Virginia Index 22 April 1868

"Sent to the Peniteniary - Sarah Jackson and Richmond Urquhart, negroes, sentenced by the court of Prince George to three years imprisonment each, in the State Peniteniary, were taken from the jail of this city on Friday and escorted to the White House by Sherrif Gee. They go over in good time as Superintendent Wardwell announces more liberal fare for his boarders." - Petersburg, Virginia Index 25 May 1868

"The transition from Hunnicutt and Peirpoint to Wardwell is easy and natural. This worthy who has lately stepped into Col. Pendleton's shoes as Superintendent of the Penitentiary, states in a report to "Governor" Wells, that there was turned over to him when he took charge of the prison the following inventory: Machinery, tools, fixtures, furniture, etc., valued at$15,709 35 Articles manufactured for sale, $16,743.18 Material upon which labor has been expended, $4,076.95 Raw material$6,861.86 Value of labor on custom work $87.80 Supplies for issue, including clothing, $1,438/31 Medicines for use in hospital$81.60

Total amount of inventory $44,999.07

He says his boarders, 362 in number, are consuming per week, 3,000 pounds of corn meal, 500 pounds of floor, 12 bushels of peas, 12 bushels of potatoes, 825 pounds of beef or mutton and 350 pounds of bacon. The amount of sales for the year ending March 31st, 1868, was $14,628.27. He has six assistants at a cost to the State of $5,700 per annum; a clerk at $800 per annum, surgeons pay $800; two negro gate keepers at $45 per month each, and eight guards at $45 per month each; making a total of $12,628 for assistants, clerks, etc." - Petersburg, Virginia Index 06 July 1868

"THE SUPERINTENDENT, for the last two months, has been that well known Radical of this city, B. Wardwell. And Nigger loving Radical though he be we speak from our own personal knowledge and observation when we say that the prison was never cleaner, order and discipline was never better maintained and economy more studied than it is now. He has yet many improvements in contemplation, but the length this letter has already grown prevents us from mentioning them at this time. He desires us to say that visitors will always be admitted and shown through the prison."

-Petersburg, Virginia Index 07 July 1868
Petersburg, Virginia Index 01 August 1868:

"The Superintendent of the Penitentiary requests me to invite the Petersburg clergy to come over and preach to the convicts. There are over four hundred men and women there confined and it does seem to us that some efforts mght be made to improve their spiritual condition. The rules of the institution require services twice on Sunday -at 9am and 4pm. Mr. Wardwell, the Superintendent, is a Radical, but, we speak from experience, when we say that visitors are received with more kindness and are treated with more courtesy now than was ever known at that institution before. It seems a most difficult matter to get any one to preach at the penitentiary---it should be remembered that the convicts are certainly not radicals if that has anything to do with the matter."

"Among the charges preferred against Wardwell, Superintendent of the State Penitentiary, is that he sold 'two thousand bricks more or less, the property of the State of Virginia to one James H. Platt, of Chesterfield county,' or his agent, which Wardwell failed to account for.- -Petersburg Index 27 April 1869

"General Canby has appointed a board of military officers to investigate the charges recently made against Burnham Wardwell, the Superintendent of the Penitentiary, by two discharged employees. The investigation promises to be quite lively, as the "Hon." Luther Lee, Penitentiary Storekeeper. and H. A. Wigand, his assistant, have entered the lists against their chief and promise to make some rare disclosures in regard to the manner in which business is transacted under Radical rule. It is said, and doubtless truly too, that Chas. H. Porter will prosecute the case. Thus we see that the All powerful Wardwell is getting himself into hot water. We are told that if Wardwell succeeds in escaping from the toils which his adversaries have woven for him, that he will enlighten the public in, regard to certain speculations of Luther Lee and in the end from one and the other we may confidently hope that the public will learn some of the ways that office holders have now a days of making money at their expense." -Petersburg Index 01 May 1869

"The investigation of Burnham Wardwell commenced yesterday and has been continued today. Although it has been proven by every witness that this Superintendent of the Penitentiary has been feeding sixty hogs and dozens of cows off of good food bought for the men, and although he has been also trading with them in tobacco and doing hundreds of reprehensible and dishonest things it will be difficult to fix anything upon him which will amount to more than a breach of trust. Today the chief complainant, the ex-school teacher Hovey was partially examined, but his cross questioning was postponed until Friday, to suit the convenience of Chandler, who appears before the military commission for Wardwell. Chandler intends to roll this man's character "as a sweet morsel under his tongue" when he gets him on the stand again. One witness testified that Wardwell. who is a dealer in coal, had taken it upon himself to furnish the Penitentiary with anthracite of an unsaleable and inferior kind. It came out also that Wardwell projected taking the prisoners all out some fine summer morning for a four days camp meeting, that some eight or ten cells he never had locked up at night; that he had connived at illicit trading with prisoners; sold them mean tobacco without government stamps; had allowed uproarious assemblies of from one hundred to one hundred and fifty prisoners in the yard without necessary provisions as to guard; had actually allowed, if not assisted, in the escape of convicts and done everything he pleased without regard to discipline or law, honesty or justice." -Petersburg Index 05 May 1869

"Chief Justice Chase and Judge Underwood were expected here this morning by the Potomac train, but did not arrive. The officers of the Court, members of the bar and numerous interested persons were in attendance at the hour appointed; but there were no judges on hand. It is expected that both will be here by this afternoon's train. Marshal Van Winkle. just before he was turned out of office, summoned the Grand Jury for this session and it is the most respectable body of that kind we have had since the end of the war. When the Chief Justice was here last he instructed the Marshal that it would not thereafter be required of jurors to take the ironclad oath, and consequently he has had a wide range to select his men. Hitherto this most important body has been composed of scalawags and a low trade of Negroes, now it comprises some of our best and mast influential citizens. The military commission appointed by the Commanding general to investigate the charges against Burnham Wardwell, met to-day and summoned many witnesses. It seems to be understood that the sessions are to be secret. Judge Bramhall. the new judge of the Circuit Court of this district, took charge today and delivered an able and argumentative charge to the Grand Jury. Judge B. is the successor of Judge Meredith." -Petersburg Index 06 May 1869

"The Wardwell Penitentiary investigation is at last drawing to a close. Chandler said today that he would be through with his witnesses tomorrow, provided Mr. Platte's attendance could be obtained. Mr. Platte has been telegraphed for. It is alleged that Wardwell sold this witness 50,000 old bricks from the Old State Court-House building and that the State has not been credited with the amount paid for them. Mr. Lubbock, of Corey & Lubbock, testified that he had bought of Wardwell $335 worth of rags and iron. He had not paid for them. He preferred not to state why he had not paid for them, though it would do Wardwell good. The Court said that it was in the line of enquiry and must be told. Mr. Lubbock then stated that Mr. Corey, his partner, was an old and intimate friend of Mr. Wardwell and that he had been accustomed to lend that gentleman the checks of the firm. He was now owing the firm some four hundred dollars, and he preferred to avoid payment until a settlement could be had of this private account. He knew that he had no right to hold this money as collateral, legally--but thought he had a moral right to do so. Thought that if Wardwell had have known that he withheld payment on this account his pride would have caused him to have had a full settlement. The defence asked that certain witnesses who had been summoned and who had not appeared be compelled to attend. The court issued rules against them." -Petersburg Index 18 May 1869

"Virginia Peniteniary By a recent visit to this flourishing institution, we find that it has now upon its rolls 638 convicts. Pardons come in slowly, few die and as there are now no escapes, in twelve months, or so, we may reasonably expect this number to run up to a thousand. Three-fourths of the prisoners are negroes-and thirty-five of these are women, who have been allowed to carry into confinement with them six infants. The youngest prisoner is twelve years of age and the oldest seventy-two. Sixty-nine have professed conversion since they have become inmates of the penitentiary. The convicts have nothing to do now, but will soon be profitably employed in building our new reservoir. Herndon who was sent here for eighteen years recently by the Louisa Court for the seduction and murder of Miss Lumsden, has been sick ever since his arrival, but, not withstanding, finds anmple opportunity to join with prayer meetings, where he prays louder than any. He still protests himself innocent of the murder and apparently looks forward to the day when the mystery will be solved and his name cleared of its guilty stain. The findings of the court-martial appointed to investigate certain charges against Superintendent Wartiwell have never been promulgated by General Canby. It is not known positively whether the court-martial believed the charges to have been sustained by evidence or not, but it is known that Wardwell has received almost official notification that he would not he removed. When the investigation first commenced Maj. Stanton. acting Treasurer, notified Wardwell that he would neither pay to, nor receive money from him, until his case was decided. Recently Maj. Stanton informed Wardwell that be was instructed to again recognize his official position and would resume Monetary transactions with him. That is equivalent of saying that the charges against him were not sustained, nor if sustained wee overruled by Gen Canby." -Petersburg Index 24 July 1869

"General Canby has communicated to Superintendent Wardwell, of the peniteniary, his conclusions upon the evidence elicited at his trial before court martial last spring. He says not one of the charges have been sustained and that as to the incomptency, Wardwell is proved to have been an excellent officer "whose instruction of the convicts, in useful knowledge and in moral and religious duty seems to have been productive of good both to them and to the State." To celebrate this joyful announcement Wardwell has determined to have a day of Thanksgiving and prayer on Thursday. All work will be suspended and a dinner of the best prison fare is promised." -Petersburg Index 24 August 1869

NEW YEAR'S EVE IN THE RICHMOND PRISON From the Richmond Dispatch, December 28 Mr. Wardwell, Superintendent of the Peniteniary, has issued the folowing special order: Sunday, Dec. 29, 1869 Prisoners: When I desire to inflict any punishment on you, I have only to turn to the various prison books on my table, and I can see at once any and all modes of punishment possible for any man to conceive of. But when I look into said books for something to direct in a different way, I find very little. Oh! How dark! For several days I have been looking and trying to learn how to close up the year 1869 and commence 1870. Should I continue myself in the books before me, in a very large majority of causes all the prisoners would be securely locked up, and as many of the officers and guard would be excused from duty as could well be spared, and the Superintendent and family would spend the day out with his friends-if he had any. Now, unaided by the books, unadvised by any person, General Canby not otherwise directing, and God be willing, we will close up the year 1869 and commence 1870 as follows: At 8 o'clock P.M. on the last day of 1869 we will assemble in this chapel-no guard or any other person allowed to enter with arms. We will talk, sing, pray and beg pardon of God and man, just as all sinners have a right to, until 11:10 o'clock, when the Superintendent (a miserable sinner) and every convict in the institution will fall on their knees and remain so in silent prayer until the old year passes away and the new year enters. We most respectfully invite our outside friends to be with us. We shall also be happy to see any minister of the Gospel present who does not think it a crime for sinners to pray. -New York Times 31 December 1869

7 Nov 1870 The Asylum for the Incurable Insane was opened in Howard, Rhode Island. The state hospital at Howard was the first public institution in Rhode Island for the treatment of mentally ill patients. The first superintendent was Burnham Wardwell, previously the warden of the state penitentiary in Richmond, Virginia. The hospital was later named the State Hospital for Mental Diseases.

CONNECTICUT'S STATE PRISON UNWARRANTED ATTACKS UPON ITS MANAGEMENT-GOOD RESULTS UNDER PRESENT WARDEN Hartford, Aug. 23.-Intelligent people in Connecticut who are at all informed regarding the present management of the State prison, at Wethersfield, do not understand the attacks made upon the institution by Mr. Burnham Wardwell, whose communications appear from time to time in New York papers. His latest letter says: "If what I hear be true, it has been one of the most depraved and wicked places in the Nation" and he has before represented that the sytems adopted in the management are cruel and barbarous. In view of the fact that the State, during the past three years, has given special attention to the proper care and discipline of the prisoners at Wethersfield, and through its agents has accomplished most satisfactory results, these wanton assaults are surprising and altogether misleading. -New York Timess 26 August 1881

MR. WARDWELL SENT TO JAIL Worcester, Mass., Feb. 5- Burnham Wardwell, the well-known prison reformer, was sentenced by Judge Rockwell today to one year in Dedham Jail for libel upon Gen. A.B.R. Sprague, Sheriff of Worcester County. Wardwell came here to visit his friend and patron, H.H. Bigelow, about two years ago, and attempted to obtain the use of one of the city churches to talk prison reform. He was prevented from doing this through Sprague's influence, and in retaliation wrote a pamphlet making libelous attacks on Sprague's personal character. When the case was called for sentence today, Wardwell's counsel, W.H. Gale of Boston, introduced testimoy as to the defendant's good character. Among the witnesses who testified upon his behalf were the Rev. Dr. A.A. Miner of Boston, ex-Gov. William Sprague of Rhode Island, and the Rev. William Bradley of Boston. An affidavit from ex-Gov. Butler testifying to his favorable opinion of Wardwell was also introduced. A letter was also introduced from the late Wendell Phillips, said to be the last one he ever wrote. It was dated Jan. 28. It said that the writer was unwell and couldn't come to Worcester to testify for Wardwell this week, but if the case were postponed he hoped he would be able to come next week. The District Attorney introduced a letter signed by Wardwell, published in the New York Sun last month, in which he said he was being persecuted for telling the truth, and calling for aid. The court then sentenced the defendant. -New York Times 06 February 1884

A SHERIFF SUING FOR LIBEL Worcester, Mass., March 10 - There is great popular interest in the trial of the twenty-thousand-dollar libel suit brought by Sherrif A.B.R. Sprague, of this county, against Horace H. Bigelow, a prominent capitalist and Butler politician, now in progress in the Superior Court. Sprague claims that Bigelow instigated, or at least aided in, the circulation of Burnham Wardwell's libelous pamphlet, for the publication of which Wardwell is now serving a one-year sentence in Dedham Jail. -New York Times 11 March 1884

Burham Wardwell of Boston, the prison reformer, spoke to the Constitution Club last night about cruelties in prison. He was in favor of doing away with the straitjacket, of giving prisoners something besides bread and water, and abolishing the contract system. The latter, he thought, injured honest workers outside and was often death to those on the inside. Mr. Wardwell spoke of visiting a reform school in Maine, where the boys had a pint of milk and water and a piece of bread each for breakfast at 5 A.M. and then worked in the brickyard until noon. He was not inclined to say a blessing there when asked to do so. -New York Times 25 March 1886

There are two weak spots in Prison Reformer Burnham Wardwell's exuberant eloquence about "visiting the Reform School in Maine, where boys had a pint of milk and water and a piece of bread each for breakfast at 5 A.M. after which they worked in a brickyard until noon." One is the fact that there is no brickyard at the Maine Reform School; and the other, the fact that Mr. Wardwell has not visited the school for eight years. -New York Times 28 March 1886


I'd never heard of Burnham Wardwell until earlier this year when amateur historian Arthur Longwell walked me through an old section of Hope Cemetery to Wardwell's grave. "Every man in every jail in the country should get down on his knees to say thank you to Burnham Wardwell," Longwell told me.

Wardwell was a 19th-century prison reformer. He was a man who thrived on confrontation, and a good thing too, because he got plenty of it.

Wardwell was born in Penobscot, Maine, in 1817. As a young man he went to Richmond, Va., where he accumulated a tidy fortune of $30,000 in the coal and lumber business. When the Civil War broke out he refused to renounce the Union, and in 1862 was arrested. His property was confiscated and he was imprisoned for two years in Castle Godwin, where a prisoner in similar circumstances said to him, "Well, Wardwell, I am glad to see that you love your country better than you do your property." He escaped and made his way to the Union lines.

After the war he returned to Richmond and became warden of the prison. He immediately set about reforming the institution. He abolished the whipping post, shackles, the ball and chain, and the practice of gagging prisoners. Loaded guns and bayonets were taken from the guards, and prisoners who died were allowed solemn burials.


Wardwell's prison was visited by various progressives, including the Rev. Edward Everett Hale and Worcester's Horace Bigelow, a shoe-factory magnate who had experimented with using prison labor. Hale and Bigelow were extremely impressed by Wardwell's work in the prison, and they talked Wardwell up so much that Wardwell was invited to New England to visit institutions and lecture on prison reform.

But not everyone here was a fan of Wardwell's, especially after the reformer was so abrasively critical of the state's penal institutions. "Burnham Wardwell recommends a large amount of stiffening for Gov. John D. Long's backbone," Wardwell wrote. "Would he tell of the number of deaths at Tewksbury State almshouse - alias slaughter pen? Would he dare speak on convicts in New England having their mouths plugged with wood to prevent them praying aloud? Their private parts burned for violating rules of the prison? Women stripped naked to the waist and terribly whipped?"

Wardwell had been invited to talk at the Church of the Unity on Elm Street in Worcester early in 1882, but at the last minute the Rev. Roland A. Wood canceled the engagement. Wardwell was furious. He was convinced Worcester County Sheriff Augustus Sprague was behind the cancellation, and forcefully counterattacked. In a pamphlet, he accused the sheriff of lying, drinking, treating prisoners brutally, making the jail "a place of prostitution," of being a coward, of drawing a gun on a "virtuous Christian lady" and of "ruining a young and innocent Worcester lady."

Sprague promptly sued for libel. If Wardwell was of the mind that the trial would at least bring into the public forum the discussion of prison reform, he was to be disappointed. Public interest naturally focused on the most lascivious of the charges, that the sheriff had "ruined" 18-year-old Fannie Phelps. The girl's stepmother told of seeing the sheriff and Fannie holding hands, kissing and sleeping together. Much of the testimony focused on a "blood-streaked towel" that the stepmother found one morning after Fannie had visited the sheriff's room.


Wardwell lost the libel case and was sentenced to prison. Whether he served any time I haven't been able to find out. Despite the outcome, Wardwell insisted he was in the right and published sections of the trial transcript to prove his case in a pamphlet entitled, "Sheriff A.B.R. Sprague Under Oath Admits The Visits, Kissing, Hand-feeling, As Well As The Attempt To Shoot." And you thought spin-doctors were a modern phenomenon.

Like many reformers, Wardwell suffered from a Messiah complex, constantly comparing his own martyrdom and fight for justice to that of Christ. "When called "tramp,' "deadbeat,' "fraud,' by so-called "Christians' I am reminded that my mission in behalf of the suffering and dumb in prisons is one with that of Him," he said.

He must have been a great speaker. His speeches show a love for rolling, Biblical declamations like this from his "Public Address": "The gallows for Mrs. Surratt or for crazy Charles J. Guiteau, the iron gag, the faggot, dungeon and chains; the sword dripping with guilty or innocent blood; the human head jerked off by a bungling hangman; is in no way or part any of the teachings of Jesus. God never ordered anything of the kind; Jesus Christ never taught anything of the kind."


He was something of a showman. On the lecture circuit he lugged around the whipping post he supposedly had taken from the Richmond prison and sold to buy Bibles for the prisoners. How it was still in his possession was never explained.

He was a born opportunist. When feuding with the sheriff he jumped at the chance of showing his opponent's hostility and his own magnaminity: "Should he shoot me, I beg my friends not to allow him to be hanged," he said, "for I do not believe in capital punishment."

Despite his bombast and showmanship, Wardwell was sincere, and in one of his quieter sentences is the sentiment that helped change the treatment of prisoners: "I hold that prisoners have rights that should be respected."

He died in Boston four years after the libel trial, and was buried in a lot sold to him for $1 by his faithful patron Bigelow. But even in death Wardwell continued to divide the people of Worcester. A month after he died a memorial was held for him here. It was well-attended by his supporters, but a correspondent for the Massachusetts Spy, which made no secret of its dislike for Wardwell, wrote, "Some of those who remember Burnham Wardwell's trial and his deserved sentencing to jail will marvel at this extraordinary meeting." - Worcester Telegram & Gazette January 4, 1993

  1. Gravestone.
  2. Boston Massachusetts Vital Records 1886.