Place:Yunnan, People's Republic of China

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NameYunnan
Alt namesNan-chaosource: Times Atlas of World History (1993) p 350
Nanzhaosource: Times Atlas of World History (1993) p 351
Yun-nansource: Family History Library Catalog
Yün-nansource: Times Atlas of World History (1993) p 360
TypeProvince
Coordinates24.0°N 101.0°E
Located inPeople's Republic of China
Contained Places
Deserted settlement
Taihezhen
Inhabited place
Ameng
Anning
Baimakou
Bangda
Baoshan
Binchuan
Cangyuan
Caojian
Changning
Changputong
Chengjiang
Chuxiong
Dadugang
Daguan
Dali
Danfengzhen
Dashutang
Daxingzhai
Dayakou
Dayao
Dazhiba
Dutianjie
Dêqên
Enle
Eryuan
Eshan
Fangniu
Fengqing
Fugong
Fule
Fumin
Funing
Fuyuan
Gejiu
Gengma
Gongshan
Guangnan
Guyin
Hekou
Hekoujie
Heqing
Honghe
Hongmendu
Hongmenkou
Huaning
Huitongqiao
Huize
Hujie
Jianchuan
Jiangbian
Jiangbianzhai
Jiangcheng
Jiangdi
Jiangdihe
Jiangxi
Jianshui
Jingdong
Jingjiang
Jinjiangjie
Jinning
Jinping
Judian
Jushiguan
Kaiyuan
Kangpu
Kunming
Lagedu
Lagu
Lancang
Lanping
Laochang
Laocheng
Lianghe
Lijiang City
Lincang
Liuhejie
Liuku
Longchuan
Longgang
Longling
Ludian
Ludonghe
Lufeng
Luliang
Lunan
Luoci
Luoping
Luxi
Luzhang
Machangfu
Maguan
Majie
Malizhen
Manban
Manbian
Mandun
Mase
Mengban
Mengbang
Menggu
Menghai
Menghun
Mengka
Menglian
Mengwang
Mengzhe
Mengzhi
Mengzi
Midu
Mile
Mojiang
Mouding
Nalong
Nanhua
Nanma
Niujie
Niujingjie
Nixi
Nuanli
Pianjiao
Pinghe
Pingzhai
Pu'erdu
Pudi
Puduhe
Puer
Pumei
Qiaojia
Qiaotou
Qiubei
Qujing
Reshuitang
Sanjie
Shanggaixin
Shangyun
Shanmulong
Shideng
Shigu
Shiping
Shuangbai
Shuangjiang
Shuangjiangqiao
Shuijing
Sichuanzhai
Simao
Songming
Taipingchang
Tangdan
Tangfang
Tengchong
Tongguan
Tonghai
Waao
Wandingzhen
Wangjiashao
Weishan
Weixi
Weiyuan
Wenniu
Wenshan
Wuding
Xiagaixin
Xiangyun
Xiaoazhang
Xiaolongtan
Xiaozhongdian
Xicheng
Xijialong
Xin'ansuo
Xinchang
Xinjie
Xinping
Xinzha
Xinzhai
Xuanwei
Yahagong
Yanfeng
Yangjie
Yanshan
Yanxing
Yanzijiao
Yaoan
Yichexun
Yiliang
Yilong
Yimen
Yingpan
Yingpanjie
Yinyuan
Yipinglang
Yiwu
Yongning
Yongping
Yongren
Yongshan
Yongsheng
Yuanjiang
Yuanmou
Yuanyang
Yun Xian
Yunlong
Yuxi
Zhage
Zhanyi
Zhaotong
Zhaxi
Zhenkang
Zhenxiong
Zhenyuan
Zhiziluo
Zhongcheng
Zhongdian
Zhongheying
Zili
Unknown
Dehong Dai and Jingpo
Diqing Tibetan
K'un-ming Shih
T'eng-ch'ung Hsien
Xishuangbanna Dai
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country. It spans approximately and has a population of 45.7 million (2009). The capital of the province is Kunming, formerly also known as Yunnan. The province borders Burma, Laos and Vietnam.

Yunnan is situated in a mountainous area, with high elevations in the northwest and low elevations in the southeast. Most of the population lives in the eastern part of the province. In the west, the altitude can vary from the mountain peaks to river valleys as much as . Yunnan is rich in natural resources and has the largest diversity of plant life in China. Of the approximately 30,000 species of higher plants in China, Yunnan has perhaps 17,000 or more.[1] Yunnan's reserves of aluminium, lead, zinc and tin are the largest in China, and there are also major reserves of copper and nickel.

Yunnan became part of the Han Empire during the 2nd century BC. It became the seat of a Tibeto-Burman-speaking kingdom of Nanzhao in the 8th century AD. Nanzhao was multi-ethnic, but the elite most likely spoke a northern dialect of Yi. The Mongols conquered the region in the 13th century, with local control exercised by warlords until the 1930s. As with other parts of China's southwest, Japanese occupation in the north during World War II forced a migration of majority Han people into the region. Ethnic minorities in Yunnan account for about 34 percent of its total population. Major ethnic groups include Yi, Bai, Hani, Zhuang, Dai and Miao.

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

The Yuanmou Man, a Homo erectus fossil unearthed by railway engineers in the 1960s, has been determined to be the oldest-known hominid fossil in China. By the Neolithic period, there were human settlements in the area of Lake Dian. These people used stone tools and constructed simple wooden structures.

Around the 3rd century BC, the central area of Yunnan around present day Kunming was known as Dian. The Chu general Zhuang Qiao (庄跤) entered the region from the upper Yangtze River and set himself up as "King of Dian". He and his followers brought into Yunnan an influx of Chinese influence, the start of a long history of migration and cultural expansion.


In 221 BC, Qin Shi Huang unified China and extended his authority south. Commanderies and counties were established in Yunnan. An existing road in Sichuan – the "Five Foot Way" – was extended south to around present day Qujing, in eastern Yunnan. Under Emperor Wu, a series of military campaigns were dispatched against the Dian during the southward expansion of the Han Dynasty. In 109 BC, Emperor Wu sent General Guo Chang (郭昌) south to Yunnan, establishing Yizhou commandery and 24 subordinate counties. The commandery seat was at Dianchi county in present-day Jinning. Another county was called "Yunnan", probably the first use of the name. To expand the burgeoning trade with Burma and India, Emperor Wu also sent Tang Meng to maintain and expand the Five Foot Way, renaming it "Southwest Barbarian Way". By this time, agricultural technology in Yunnan had improved markedly. The local people used bronze tools, plows and kept a variety of livestock, including cattle, horses, sheep, goats, pigs and dogs. Anthropologists have determined that these people were related to the people now known as the Tai. They lived in tribal congregations, sometimes led by exiled Chinese.

During the Three Kingdoms, the territory of present day Yunnan, western Guizhou and southern Sichuan was collectively called Nanzhong. The dissolution of Chinese central authority led to increased autonomy for Yunnan and more power for the local tribal structures. In AD 225, the famed statesman Zhuge Liang led three columns into Yunnan to pacify the tribes. His seven captures of Meng Huo, a local magnate, is much celebrated in Chinese folklore.

In the 4th century, northern China was largely overrun by nomadic tribes from the north. In the 320s, the Cuan clan migrated into Yunnan. Cuan Chen named himself king and held authority from Lake Dian, then known as Kunchuan. Henceforth the Cuan clan ruled Yunnan for over four hundred years. In 738, the kingdom of Nanzhao was established in Yunnan by Piluoge, who was confirmed by the imperial court of the Tang Dynasty as king of Yunnan. Ruling from Dali, the thirteen kings of Nanzhao ruled over more than two centuries and played a part in the dynamic relationship between China and Tibet. In 937, Duan Siping overthrew the Nanzhao and established the Kingdom of Dali. The kingdom was conquered by the Mongol Empire in 1253, with its former dynasty of the Duans incorporated into the Mongol dominion as governors general of the new province. The Mongolian prince sent to administer the region with them was killed. In 1273, Kublai Khan reformed the province and appointed the Semuren Sayid Ajall as its governor. The Yunnan Province during the Yuan Dynasty also included significant portions of Upper Burma after the Burmese campaigns in the 1270s and 1280s. But with the fall of the Yuan Dynasty in 1368, the Ming Dynasty destroyed the Yuan loyalists led by Basalawarmi in the Ming conquest of Yunnan by the early 1380s.

During the Ming and Qing dynasties, large areas of Yunnan were administered under the native chieftain system. A war with Burma also occurred in the 1760s due to the attempted consolidation of borderlands under local chiefs by both China and Burma.

Although largely forgotten, the bloody Panthay Rebellion of the Muslim Hui people and other local minorities against the Manchu rulers of the Qing Dynasty caused the deaths of up to a million people in Yunnan. An ethnic cleansing policy was adopted by the Qing under the title "washing off the Muslims" (xi Hui).

In 1894, George Ernest Morrison, an Australian correspondent for The Times, travelled from Beijing to British-occupied Burma via Yunnan. His book, An Australian in China, details his experiences.

Yunnan was transformed enormously by the events of the war against Japan, which caused many east coast refugees and industrial establishments to relocate to the province. It assumed great strategic significance, particularly as the Burma Road was constructed from Kunming to Lashio in Burma during this time.

Naturalists

From 1916 to 1917, Roy Chapman Andrews and Yvette Borup Andrews led the Asiatic Zoological Expedition of the American Museum of Natural History through much of western and southern Yunnan, as well as other provinces of China. The book, Camps and Trails in China, records their experiences.

Other notable explorers include Heinrich Handel-Mazzetti; George Forrest; Joseph Francis Charles Rock, who from 1922–1949 spent most of his time studying the flora, peoples and languages of southwest China, mainly in Yunnan; and Peter Goullart, a White Russian who studied Naxi culture and lived in Lijiang from 1940 to 1949.

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This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original content was at Yunnan. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with WeRelate, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.