Wyckoff is a township in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 16,696, reflecting an increase of 188 (+1.1%) from the 16,508 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 1,136 (+7.4%) from the 15,372 counted in the 1990 Census. As of the 2000 Census, Wyckoff ranked 54th in 100 highest-income places in the United States (with a population of at least 10,000). Statewide, Wyckoff ranked 41st among New Jersey locations by per capita income, with a per capita money income of $49,375 as of 1999, an increase of 49.1% from the $33,124 recorded in 1989.
From the mid-18th century, what is now Wyckoff was a community within Franklin Township, which consisted of most of northern Bergen County west of the Saddle River. Starting in the 1840s, several new municipalities were created from portions of Franklin Township, so that today what is now Wyckoff borders eight different communities. Wyckoff was formed as a township by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on November 2, 1926, replacing Franklin Township, based on the results of a referendum held that day. Portions of Wyckoff were ceded to Midland Park based on the results of a referendum held on June 9, 1931.
Though there is no solid historical evidence for any of the various theories, the most commonly given origin for the name Wyckoff, which was the origin accepted by the town committee when the town was established, is that the name is from the Lenape word wickoff, meaning "high ground", or that it is from wickok meaning "water". However, similarly named Wyckoff Heights in New York City is named after the Wyckoff family, who settled in the New York/New Jersey area when both states were part of the Dutch colony of New Netherlands. Other sources ascribe the name to Wicaugh in Malpas, England.
The first known human inhabitants of the area were the Lenni Lenape Native Americans who lived north of the Raritan River and spoke a Munsee dialect of Algonquian. Sicomac, said to mean "resting place for the departed" or "happy hunting ground", is an area of Wyckoff that, according to tradition, was the burial place of many Native Americans, including Chief Oratam of the Ackingshacys, and many stores and buildings in the community have been named after the area's name, including Sicomac Elementary School. Most Native Americans had left by the 19th century, although a small group lived near Clinton Avenue until 1939.
What is Wyckoff today was originally part of Saddle River Township, which included all of Bergen County west of the Saddle River. Saddle River Township was split in 1771, with the area containing Wyckoff becoming Franklin Township. By 1755, about 100 families lived in the Franklin Township area, of which no more than 20 were in what is now Wyckoff. Franklin Township (1771) consisted of what is today Ho-Ho-Kus (seceded 1849), Ridgewood (seceded 1876), Midland Park (seceded 1894), Oakland (seceded 1902), Franklin Lakes (seceded 1922), and Wyckoff. The size of Franklin Township decreased as areas seceded and were incorporated into their own municipalities. After Franklin Lakes was established in 1922, Franklin Township consisted of only the area known locally as Wyckoff. On November 2, 1926, residents voted (243 positive votes out of 337) to change the name from Franklin Township to the Township of Wyckoff.
The first recorded permanent settlers were John and William Van Voor Haze (Voorhees), who purchased of land in the area in 1720. Other early settlers (mostly Dutch) included the Van Horns, Terhunes, Ackermans, Quackenbushes, Pulises, and Vanderhoffs. In 1940 the population was just under 4,000 consisting of roughly 100 families with 30% of the land devoted to farming. By 1969 the number of farms had dropped to 13 covering , 6% of the township. By 2012, only two farms remain: Abma's Farm and Goffle Road Poultry Farm, which is Bergen County's only remaining live market. Rail service by the New Jersey Midland Railway began in 1870. That service was purchased by the New York, Susquehanna and Western Railway, which abruptly ended passenger service in 1966.