Place:West Bengal, India

Watchers


NameWest Bengal
TypeState
Coordinates23.0°N 87.833°E
Located inIndia     (1956 - )
Contained Places
District
Bankura
Bardhaman
Birbhum
Dakshin Dinajpur
Darjeeling
Dinajpur
Hooghly
Howrah
Jalpaiguri
Kolkata
Malda
Midnapore East
Midnapore West
Midnapore
Murshidabad
Nadia
North 24 Parganas
North Dinajpur
Purulia
South 24 Parganas
Inhabited place
Adhāta
Adra
Ahmadpur
Alampur
Algarah
Alipur Duar
Alipur
Ambikānagar
Amnān
Amta
Anandanagar
Anandapur
Andal
Anāra
Aroali
Arāmbāg
Arāpānja
Asansol
Asati
Aswatthaberia
Atghara
Atpur
Auagrām
Azimganj
Badanganj
Bagdaha
Bagdanga
Baghdobā
Baghmundi
Bagula
Baidyabati
Baijala
Baikunthapur
Bainchi
Bainchipota
Baita
Baital
Bakhra
Bakkeswar
Baladbandh
Balarāmbāti
Balarāmpota
Balarāmpur
Ballabhpur
Bandipur
Banduan
Bandwan
Bankadaha
Banpura
Banpās
Banstala
Bara Jorda
Bara
Barabhum
Barakar
Baranagar
Barddhamān
Bargāchia
Barjora
Barrackpore Cantonment
Bartala
Baruipur
Barāl
Basanti
Basubāti
Baswa
Behala
Belbunia
Belda
Beldanga
Beliator
Beliābera
Belmuri
Beonta
Berāberi
Berābāria
Betā
Bhabānipur
Bhadreswar
Bhagirathpur
Bhagwānpur
Bhandārdaha
Bharatpur
Bhatar
Bhatpara
Bhedia
Bhoāgāchi
Bhābta
Bhādua
Bhāngar
Bhātpur
Bhātua
Bhīmpur
Bidyādharpur
Bijna
Bijpur
Bilsara
Binpur
Bira
Birati
Birgi
Birnagar
Bishnupur
Bodāi
Bolpur
Bosna
Boso
Brahmapur
Budgebudge
Burnpur
Bābu Bheri
Bādinan
Bādkulla
Bāduriā
Bāgda
Bāgnān
Bāguiati
Bāhādurpur
Bālandi
Bāli Chak
Bālighai
Bālihāti
Bālly
Bālughāta
Bāluhāti
Bāmanghāra
Bāmangāchi
Bāmanmura
Bāndel
Bānkipur
Bānsbāria
Bāntra
Bāruipāra
Bāsudebpur
Bāuria
Bāwāli
Cassimbazar
Chaital
Chakdaha
Chakāltor
Champdani
Champādānga
Chanditala
Chandra
Chandrakona Road
Chandrakona
Chapra
Charanpur
Chatra
Chaubaria
Chaumua
Chelyama
Chhināmor
Chhiruti
Chhātna
Chichra
Chinpāi
Chitrasāli
Chittaranjan
Choāli
Chāmpāhāti
Chāmrāil
Chāmārpāra
Chāndpara
Contai
Cooch Behar
Dahijuri
Dainhāt
Dakshineswar
Dakshingram
Dalsingpara
Dantan
Darodih
Dattapukur
Dattapulia
Daulatabad ( 1100 - )
Daulatpur
Debagrām
Debipur
Debra
Deganga
Deocha
Depāl
Depāra
Deulpur
Deulti
Devanandapur
Dhanera
Dhaniakhāli
Dhokra
Dhosha
Dhulian
Dhulāgarh
Dhupgāri
Dhānyahānā
Dhātrigrām
Diamond Harbour
Digambarpur
Dighipāra
Dighra
Digra
Dilerpur
Dinhata
Dishegarh
Dogāchia
Domohani
Dubi Bheri
Dubra
Dubrajpur
Dum-Dum
Dumjor
Durgapur
Durlabhpur
Dwarbasini
Dādpur
Dānga
Dātra
Dīgnagar
Egra
Eksāra
Eruar
Falakata
Falta
Fatehpur
Gaighāta
Gajol
Gajā
Galsi
Ganga Sagar
Gangajalghati
Gangādharpur
Gapālnagar
Garbeta
Garden Reach
Garhbeta
Gariya
Garānberia
Gaurhati
Geonkhāli
Ghatampur
Ghazipur
Ghoshpur
Ghushuri
Gidhni
Gobindapur
Gokarna
Golabāri
Gopiballabhpur
Gopinagar
Gopālnagar
Gopālpur
Goria
Gosāba
Goyerkāta
Goāltor
Guskhara
Gustia
Gāngnāpur
Gāngārāmpur
Gārji
Gārulia
Haldia
Haldibari
Halisahar
Hansia
Harbāti
Hariharpāra
Haripur
Haripāl
Harlpur
Hasnācha
Hisābpur
Hostigrām
Hridaypur
Hugli
Hura
Hurshi
Hāhipur
Hājīpur
Hānskhāli
Hārāt
Hāsnābād
Hātisāla
Hātiāra
Hāudullāpur
Ichapore
Ikra
Ilām Bāzār
Indpur
Jagannāthpūr
Jagatnagar
Jalangi
Jalda
Jamālpurganj
Jangipur
Jangipāra
Janka
Jankāpur
Janāi
Jaugrām
Jayanti
Jaynagar
Jaypur
Jejur
Jhalida
Jhenkāri
Jhikra
Jhilimili
Jhāhtipahāri
Jhārgrām
Jiaganj
Joka
Jāguli
Jāgulia
Jāmbād
Jāmpur
Jāmuria
Jāmāibāti
Kakdwip
Kaksa
Kalna
Kamarhati
Kanchrapara
Kandi
Karea
Karīmpur
Kasba Nārāyangarh
Kasba Patāspur
Kasbagoas
Kashipur
Kasiāri
Katanimara
Kenda
Kendua
Kespur
Khajuri
Khana
Khandaghosh
Kharar
Khardah
Khardaha
Kharri
Khayerpur
Khayrasole
Kheardaha
Khejurdaha
Khenyen
Khilkāpur
Khirpai
Khorel
Khoru
Khurigāchi
Khāgrāmuri
Khānkurda
Khānpur
Khānākul
Khāsbāti
Khātra
Kinchara
Kirnāhar
Kisoripur
Knargram
Koch Bihār ( 1000 - )
Kolora
Komdhārā
Kona
Konnagar
Kotra
Kotālpur
Krishnagar
Krishnamāti
Krishnanagar
Krishnapur
Krishnarāmpur
Kuilapal
Kulpi
Kulti
Kultikri
Kumarganj
Kumārgrām
Kusria
Kusthalia
Kusumba
Kājlāgarh
Kāliganj
Kālikāpur
Kālinagar
Kālipur
Kāliyāganj
Kāmdebpur
Kāmpa
Kāmārkunda
Kāndra
Kānsāripāra
Kāsimpur
Kāsināthpur
Kāsipur
Kāyamba
Kāzipāra
Ladhurka
Lakshmanpur
Lakshmikantapur
Lakshmisāgar
Lava
Liluāh
Lodhāsuli
Lowāda
Lābpur
Lālgarh
Madanpur
Madharihat
Madhudaha
Madhupar
Madhyamgram
Madyamgrām
Magara
Magra Hāt
Magra
Mahatabhanga
Mahesgādi
Maheshtala
Mahishdānga
Mahiāri
Mahmudpur
Mahālandi
Mahānadpati
Mahīshādal
Mainåguri
Majnan
Malandighi
Malighati
Maluti
Malīpara
Manbazar
Mandalkia
Mandapur
Mangalkot
Manikanāli
Manoharpur
Manteswar
Masina
Matiakhola
Mayapur
Mayna
Mejia
Mekhliganj
Mele
Melli
Memari
Meria
Metagācha
Mirzāpur
Mohanpur
Munsarpur
Murarai
Muratpur
Murāgācha
Musar
Mādārpur
Māhikpur
Māju
Mākhālpur
Māl
Mālancha
Māndrā
Mānkundu
Mānkur
Mānsinhapur
Māthle
Mātiāli
Nabagram
Nabasta
Nabābpur
Nadābhānga
Nalhati
Nandigrām
Nangi
Nanur
Naopukuria
Naoābād
Narendrapur
Nawapārā
Naxalbari
Nayāgrām
New Jalpaiguri
Newabāgam
Nibria
Nigan
Nilgani
Nimta
Nischintāpur
North Barrackpore
North Dum Dum
Noābād
Nurpur
Nāchinda
Nāgrākata
Nākāsipāra
Nālikul
Nāmkhāna
Nāndāha
Nārāyanpur
Nārāyanpāra
Nātāgarh
Onchāi
Onda
Palāshdānga
Panchgram
Panchla
Pandaveswar
Panihati
Panskura
Parasida
Parorā
Paylampur
Petrapole
Petua
Phalti
Phinga
Phulbari
Phulkusma
Phurphura
Piplūn
Pirakata
Polba
Ponpāj
Port Canning
Puinān
Puncha
Purandarpur
Purbashthāli
Pālsit
Pānchghara
Pānchur
Pānchuria
Pānchāl
Pānuria
Pānākua
Pātharghāra
Pātihāl
Pātiram
Pātna
Pātrasāer
Pātul
Pātuli
Pāunān
Raghabpur
Raghumāthbāri
Raghunāthpur
Raipur
Rajnagar
Ramanbāti
Ramgarh
Ramshai Hat
Ramānāthpur
Ranaghat
Raskunda
Ratanpur
Rejinagar
Rekjoāti
Rishra
Rukni
Russa
Rādhānagar
Rāidighi
Rājbāri
Rājhāt
Rājibpur
Rājpur
Rājābhāt Khāwa
Rājāpur
Rāmjībanpur
Rāmkānāli
Rāmnagar
Rāmpur Hāt
Rāmsāgar
Rānibāndh
Rānīganj
Rāutara
Rāyna
Rāypur
Sainthia
Salkhia
Salt Lake City
Samūdragarh
Sandeshkhali
Sankarpur
Santoshpur
Sardiha
Sarsuna
Sehara
Serampore
Shantipur
Sheakhala
Shibpur
Shirākol
Shyamdih
Sibpur
Sikandarpur
Sikarpur
Silda
Simla
Simlāpāl
Simurāli
Singe
Singhi
Singpāra
Singur
Sirkābād
Sitalkuchi
Sitārāmpur
Sodepur
Sodpur
Solangāri
Sonamukhi
Sonārpur
Sonātikri
South Dum-Dum
Srirāmpur
Subarnapur
Subipur
Sudarsan
Sugandha
Sukchar
Suklara
Supur
Suria
Sutāhāta
Swarupnagar
Syāmpur
Sābang
Sāgardīghi
Sālbani
Sāltora
Sānkrāil
Sāntipur
Sārenga
Sātbāria
Sātghara
Sātgāchia
Sātuli
Takipur
Tal Lah
Tamluk
Tapasi
Teesta Bazaar
Tehata
Tengra
Tentulia
Thākurdwāri
Thākurpukur
Titāgarh
Totānāla
Tribeni
Tufānganj
Tājpur
Tāki
Tāldāngra
Tālsa
Tāmna
Tāntipāra
Tārakeswar
Tārdah
Ukhra
Ula
Ulubāria
Uludāngar
Urma
Uttarpara-Kotrung
Zeyādah Kot
Ākna
Āmdānga
Āmlāgora
Āmreswar
Āmtala
Ānūr
Ārbālia
Ārgoal
Ārgur
Ārsāpota
Āyān
Unknown
Cassem Bazar
Chandernagor
Ranjana
Tangra
Twenty-four Parganas
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

West Bengal is a state in the eastern region of India and is the nation's fourth-most populous.[1] It is also the seventh-most populous sub-national entity in the world, with over 91 million inhabitants. Spread over , it is bordered by the countries of Nepal, Bhutan, and Bangladesh, and the Indian states of Odisha, Jharkhand, Bihar, Sikkim, and Assam. The state capital is Kolkata. West Bengal encompasses two broad natural regions: the Gangetic Plain in the south and the sub-Himalayan and Himalayan area in the north.

Ancient Bengal was the site of several major Vedic kingdoms. Bengal region was part of large Indian empires such as the Maurya empire (second century BC) and Gupta Empire (fourth century AD); and part of the regional Pala Empire (eighth to 11th century) and Sena dynasty (11th–12th century). From the 13th century onward, the region was ruled by several sultans, Hindu kings and Baro-Bhuyan landlords, until the beginning of British rule in the 18th century. The British East India Company cemented their hold on the region following the Battle of Plassey in 1757, and Calcutta served for many years as the capital of British India. The early and prolonged exposure to British administration resulted in expansion of Western education, culminating in development in science, institutional education, and social reforms of the region, including what became known as the Bengal Renaissance. A hotbed of the Indian independence movement through the early 20th century, Bengal was divided during India's independence in 1947 along religious lines into two separate entities: West Bengal—a state of India—and East Bengal—a part of the newly created Pakistan—later becoming Bangladesh in 1971.

A major agricultural producer, West Bengal is the sixth-largest contributor to India's net domestic product.[2] Noted for its political activism, the state was ruled by democratically elected communist government for three decades. West Bengal is noted for its cultural activities and presence of cultural and educational institutions; the state capital Kolkata is known as the "cultural capital of India". The state's cultural heritage, besides varied folk traditions, ranges from stalwarts in literature including Nobel-laureate Rabindranath Tagore to scores of musicians, film-makers and artists. West Bengal is also distinct from most other Indian states in its appreciation and practice of playing Football besides the national favourite sport cricket.

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Stone age tools dating back 20,000 years have been excavated in the state. The region was a part of the Vanga Kingdom, one of ancient kingdoms of Epic India. The kingdom of Magadha was formed in 7th century BC, consisting of the Bihar and Bengal regions. It was one of the four main kingdoms of India at the time of Mahavira and the Buddha, and consisted of several Janapadas, or Vedic realms/kingdoms. Several Vedic realms were present in Bengal region, including Vanga, Rarh, Pundra and Suhma. During the rule of Maurya dynasty, the Magadha Empire extended over nearly all of South Asia, including Afghanistan and parts of Persia under Ashoka the Great in the 3rd century BC.

One of the earliest foreign references to Bengal is a mention of a land named Gangaridai by the Ancient Greeks around 100 BC. The word is speculated to have come from Gangahrd (Land with the Ganges in its heart) in reference to an area in Bengal. Bengal had overseas trade relations with Suvarnabhumi (Burma, Lower Thailand, Lower Malay Peninsula, and the Sumatra). According to Mahavamsa, Vijaya Singha, a Vanga prince, conquered Lanka (modern day Sri Lanka) and gave the name "Sinhala" to the country.


From the 3rd to the 6th centuries AD, the kingdom of Magadha served as the seat of the Gupta Empire. The first recorded independent king of Bengal was Shashanka, reigning around early 7th century. After a period of anarchy, the Buddhist Pala dynasty ruled the region for four hundred years, followed by a shorter reign of the Hindu Sena dynasty. Some areas of Bengal were invaded by Rajendra Chola I of Chola Dynasty between 1021 and 1023. Islam made its first appearance in Bengal during the 12th century when Sufi missionaries arrived. Later, occasional Muslim raiders reinforced the process of conversion by building mosques, madrassas and Sufi Khanqah. Between 1202 and 1206, Bakhtiar Khilji, a military commander from the Delhi Sultanate, overran Bihar and Bengal as far east as Rangpur, Bogra and the Brahmaputra River. Although he failed to bring Bengal under his control, the expedition managed to defeat Lakshman Sen and his two sons moved to a place then called Vikramapur (present-day Munshiganj District), where their diminished dominion lasted until the late 13th century.


During the 14th century, the former kingdom became known as the Sultanate of Bengal, ruled intermittently with the Sultanate of Delhi as well as powerful Hindu states and land-lords-Baro-Bhuyans. The Hindu Deva Kingdom ruled over eastern Bengal after the collapse Sena Empire. The Sultanate of Bengal was interrupted by an uprising by the Hindus under Raja Ganesha. The Ganesha dynasty began in 1414, but his successors converted to Islam. Bengal came once more under the control of Delhi as the Mughals conquered it in 1576. There were several independent Hindu states established in Bengal during the Mughal period like those of Maharaja Pratap Aditya of Jessore and Raja Sitaram Ray of Burdwan. These kingdoms contributed greatly to the economic and cultural landscape of Bengal. Extensive land reclamations in forested and marshy areas were carried out and trade as well as commerce were highly encouraged. These kingdoms also helped introduce new music, painting, dancing and sculpture into Bengali art-forms as well as many temples were constructed during this period. Militarily, they served as bulwarks against Portuguese and Burmese attacks. Koch Bihar Kingdom in the northern Bengal, flourished during the period of 16th and the 17th centuries as well as weathered the Mughals and survived till the advent of the British.

European traders arrived late in the fifteenth century. Their influence grew until the British East India Company gained taxation rights in Bengal subah, or province, following the Battle of Plassey in 1757, when Siraj ud-Daulah, the last independent Nawab, was defeated by the British. The Bengal Presidency was established by 1765, eventually including all British territories north of the Central Provinces (now Madhya Pradesh), from the mouths of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra to the Himalayas and the Punjab. The Bengal famine of 1770 claimed millions of lives. Calcutta was named the capital of British India in 1772. The Bengal Renaissance and Brahmo Samaj socio-cultural reform movements had great impact on the cultural and economic life of Bengal. The failed Indian rebellion of 1857 started near Calcutta and resulted in transfer of authority to the British Crown, administered by the Viceroy of India. Between 1905 and 1911, an abortive attempt was made to divide the province of Bengal into two zones. Bengal suffered from the Great Bengal famine in 1943 that claimed 3 million lives.


Bengal played a major role in the Indian independence movement, in which revolutionary groups such as Anushilan Samiti and Jugantar were dominant. Armed attempts against the British Raj from Bengal reached a climax when Subhas Chandra Bose led the Indian National Army from Southeast Asia against the British. When India gained independence in 1947, Bengal was partitioned along religious lines. The western part went to India (and was named West Bengal) while the eastern part joined Pakistan as a province called East Bengal (later renamed East Pakistan, giving rise to independent Bangladesh in 1971). In 1950, the Princely State of Cooch Behar merged with West Bengal. In 1955, the former French enclave of Chandannagar, which had passed into Indian control after 1950, was integrated into West Bengal; portions of Bihar were subsequently merged with West Bengal. Both West and East Bengal suffered from large refugee influx during and after the partition in 1947. Refugee settlement and related issues continued to play significant role in the politics and socio-economic condition of the state.

During the 1970s and 1980s, severe power shortages, strikes and a violent Marxist-Naxalite movement damaged much of the state's infrastructure, leading to a period of economic stagnation. The Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971 resulted in the influx of millions of refugees to West Bengal, causing significant strains on its infrastructure. The 1974 smallpox epidemic killed thousands. West Bengal politics underwent a major change when the Left Front won the 1977 assembly election, defeating the incumbent Indian National Congress. The Left Front, led by Communist Party of India (Marxist), governed for the state for the subsequent three decades.

The state's economic recovery gathered momentum after economic reforms were introduced in the mid-1990s by the central government, aided by the advent of information technology and IT-enabled services. As of 2007, armed activists have been conducting minor terrorist attacks in some parts of the state, while clashes with the administration are taking place at several sensitive places over the issue of industrial land acquisition. Although the state's GDP has risen significantly since the 1990s, West Bengal has remained affected by political instability and bad governance. The state continues to suffer from regular bandhs (strikes), a low Human Development Index level, substandard healthcare services, a lack of socio-economic development, poor infrastructure, political corruption and civil violence.

Research Tips


This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original content was at West Bengal. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with WeRelate, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.