Valladolid is the capital city of the Province of Valladolid. It is situated at the confluence of the Pisuerga and Esgueva rivers, and located within five winegrowing regions: Ribera del Duero, Rueda, Toro (DO TORO), Tierra de León (DO ) and Cigales. Its name is linked to the 8th century Muslim Caliph Al-Walid I who ruled the Islamic Empire between (668-715) which included "Valladolid". It has a population of 311,501 people, making it Spain's 13th most populous municipality and northwestern Spain's biggest city. Its metropolitan area ranks 20th in Spain with a population of 413,605 people in 23 municipalities (INE 2011).
Valladolid was originally settled in pre-Roman times by the Celtic Vaccaei people, and later the Romans themselves. It remained a small settlement until being re-established by King Alfonso VI of Castile as a Lordship for the Count Pedro Ansúrez in 1072. It grew to prominence in the Middle Ages as the seat of the Court of Castile and being endowed with fairs and different institutions as a collegiate church, University (1241), Royal Court and Chancery and the Casa de la Moneda. The Catholic Monarchs, Isabel I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, married in Valladolid in 1469 and established it as the capital of the Kingdom of Castile and later of united Spain. Christopher Columbus died in Valladolid in 1506, while authors Francisco de Quevedo and Miguel de Cervantes lived and worked in the city. It was also a cultural centre in the Spanish Renaissance, although a fire in 1561 forced Phillip II to move the capital to Madrid. It briefly returned to Valladolid under Phillip III between 1601 and 1606, before returning indefinitely to Madrid. The city then declined until the arrival of the railroad in the 19th century, and with its industrialisation, already in the 20th century.
Valladolid's Old Town preserves a set composed of historic houses, palaces, churches, plazas, avenues and parks, along with a heritage museum which features the National Museum of Sculpture, the Museum of Contemporary Art Patio Herreriano or the Oriental Museum, as well as the museum houses of José Zorrilla and Cervantes. Among the events that are held each year in the city include the Holy Week in Valladolid, the Valladolid International Film Week (Seminci), or the Theatre Festival and street arts (TAC).