Treeton is a village and civil parish now in the Metropolitan Borough of Rotherham in South Yorkshire, England. It is located about 6 kilometres (4 mi) south of the town of Rotherham and 8 kilometres (5 mi) east of Sheffield City Centre. Until the nationwide reorganization of local government in 1974, Treeton was part of Rotherham Rural District in the West Riding of Yorkshire.
There is evidence of Mesolithic and Neolithic settlement in this area. In 1954 a Neolithic polished stone axe was found at Gregory Hill Field, and in 1957 Mesolithic flint cores were found in Treeton Wood. There was a Roman fort at Templeborough, about north west of Treeton, and remnants of the Roman road called Icknield Street (sometimes Ryknild or Riknild Street) have been found in nearby Brinsworth.
The name Treeton is Old English in origin and may mean 'tree farmstead' or ‘farmstead built with posts’. The earliest known written record of Treeton is the Domesday book of 1086, in which it is referred to as Trectone or Tretone. The Domesday Book also mentions that the village had two mills and a church. The present parish church the Church of St Helen was originally built in the 12th century, but may have included parts of an earlier church. The church was expanded in the 14th century and extensively restored in the 19th century.
The North Midland Railway built a railway through the village in 1840, this later became the Midland Railway. There was a station at Treeton until 1951. A colliery was built at Treeton starting in 1875, and 400 houses were built between 1881 and 1905 to house miners' families. Treeton Colliery closed in 1990 and the site has since been redeveloped for homes.