Throckley was a colliery village, being adjacent to Throckley Colliery; although with the decline in the coal-mining industry the life-style of the village has changed, like many in the Newcastle area.
One of Throckley's more notable residents was William Brown, who was a consulting engineer in the 18th century, and part owner of Throckley Colliery at the time, responsible for the construction of many colliery waggonways throughout the northeast of England. From about 1750 until his death in 1782 William Brown was primarily recognised as the builder of Newcomen steam engines for pumping purposes, particularly at coalmines.
Throckley was a township in the ancient parish of Newburn and became a separate civil parish in 1866. From 1894 until 1935 it was considered a civil parish within the Urban District of Newburn, and in 1935 it was absorbed into the civil parish of Newburn itself. Newburn became part of Newcastle upon Tyne in Northumberland in 1935 and of the City of Newcastle upon Tyne in the newly formed county of Tyne and Wear in 1974.