Tallong is a village within the Southern Tablelands region of New South Wales, Australia, in Goulburn-Mulwaree Council. The village is located just outside the southern extremity of the Southern Highlands region and has some cultural and historic connections with this region also. At the 2011 census, the village had a population of 715. The town is 8.5 km from the town of Marulan and 25 km from the town of Bundanoon.
The principal industries of the village include stud farms, arts and crafts and services for surrounding farms.
The first European settler in the area was George Barber, a cattle farmer. In 1814 Barber established a cattle station along what became known as Barber's Creek. In 1821 he received a grant of covering the general Tallong-Marulan district, to be converted from cedar brush to farmland. Before his death in a riding accident in 1844, Barber had extended his local landholdings to , which he named "Glenrock". He is buried in the Old Marulan Cemetery in Marulan.
In the late 1820s, that portion of Barber's land that would eventually become the township was sold or reallocated to Sydney entrepreneur and mariner Billy Blue. Convict labour was used to clear the grazing land and prepare a route for the Main South railway line to Goulburn. Tallong was selected as the location for a railway refuelling point, and the town's initial population consisted of convicts, woodcutters, railway workers and their families.
By 1900, cattle grazing was slowly giving way to a thriving fruit industry, known particularly for apples and pears. The village sent an annual exhibit of a tall pyramid of fruit to the Sydney Royal Easter Show; Tallong's apples and pears took top honours several times throughout the early part of the twentieth century.
The population reached 200 in 1920, and a Memorial Hall was constructed to mark the town's growth and record the servise of local residents in World War I. The Hall and war memorial are still standing today.
In 1955 the Australian poet and novelist Seaforth Mackenzie drowned while attempting to swim across Tallong (formerly Barber's) Creek near the town.
Tallong was destroyed in the Chatsbury bushfire of 1965. Its economy did not fully recover and the award-winning fruit industry folded. Many residents moved and the post office and a number of small businesses closed.