Talbot County is a county located in the heart of the Eastern Shore of Maryland in the U.S. state of Maryland. As of the 2010 census, the population was 37,782. Its county seat is Easton. The county was named for Lady Grace Talbot, the wife of Sir Robert Talbot, an Anglo-Irish statesman, and the sister of Lord Baltimore.
The founding date of Talbot County is not known. It existed by February 12, 1661, when a writ was issued to its sheriff. It was initially divided into nine Hundreds and three parishes: St. Paul's, St. Peter's and St. Michael's.
In 1667, the first meeting of Commissions was held in the home known as Widow Winkles on the Skipton Creek near the town of York. The town of York was vacated once the courthouse was to be built on Armstrongs Old Field in 1709 near Pitts' Bridge. The new courthouse designated because York was too far north in the county once Queen Anne's County received their charter and was lopped off of Talbot County. Pitts' Bridge was just north of the Quaker Meeting House, but most importantly, it faced the Indian trail (Washington Street - Easton).
After the American Revolutionary War in 1786, Act to Assemble in Annapolis appointed John Needles to survey and "to erect a town in Talbot County to be called Talbottown" - laying out a town around then existing court house with 118 number parcels of land and designated streets, alleys and lanes. Talbottown was to be known as the county seat of Easton. Another act was passed in 1789 to build a larger courthouse on the site of the old one. This court house was completed in 1794 and today parts of it still stand today inside of the present court house.
Lt. Col. Tench Tilghman, Gen. George Washington's Aide-De-Camp, was born on Fausley in Talbot County on December 25, 1744. He died on April 18, 1786, and is buried in Oxford, Maryland. On the monument at the grave site, an inscription reads: Tench Tilghman Lt. Col. in the Continental Army And Aid de-camp of Washington Who spoke Him thus: He was in Every Action in which the Main Army was concerned a great part of the Time. He refused to receive Pay. While lying no man could be more Esteemed and since dead none more Lamen ted than Col. Tilghman. No one bad imbibed Sentiments of greater Friendship for Him than I had done. He left as Fair a Reputation as Ever belonged to a Human Character. Died April 18, 1786 Aged 42
On his actual grave an inscription reads "In memory of Col. Tench Tilghman who died April 18, 1786 in the 42nd year of his age. Very much lamented. He tool an early and active part in the great contest that secured the Independence of the United Stated of America. He was an Aide-de-Camp to His Excellency General George Washington Commander in Chief of the American Armies and was Honoured with his Friendship, Confidence and he was one of those whose merit were Disinguised and Honourable Reward By the Congress But Still more to his Praise He was a Good Man".
The first established hospital on the Eastern Shore was near McDaniel at Dr. Absolom Thompson farm, the old Mary's Delight Farm.
The county has a number of properties on the National Register of Historic Places.