Talbot County is a county located in the heart of the Eastern Shore of Maryland in the U.S. state of Maryland. It is bordered by Queen Anne's County to the north, Caroline County to the east, Dorchester County to the south, and the Chesapeake Bay to the west. As of 2010, the population was 37,782. It was named for Lady Grace Talbot, the wife of Sir Robert Talbot, an Anglo-Irish statesman, and the sister of Cæcilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore. Its county seat is Easton.
The founding date of Talbot County is not known. It existed by February 12, 1661, when a writ was issued to its sheriff.
The county has a number of properties on the National Register of Historic Places.