The Town of Stockbridge is located on the eastern border of the county.
The land surrounding where Stockbridge would be established, was being lived upon by "Stockbridge Indians" (as local settlers would refer to them as), who had been relocated already to the New Stockbridge Indian Territory during the latter half the 18th century, being told that this land was to be reserved for future tribal generations. These tribes, of New England, accepted an invitation of the Oneidas to live and share on their reservation in New York. Subsequent disagreements between the settlers caused many Stockbridge whites to relocate to Indiana and later to Wisconsin. Stockbridge is the birthplace of meatpacking industrialist Philip Danforth Armour and brother Herman Ossian Armour.
The town was first settled in 1791 by pioneers from New England. The town was formed in 1836 by composing parts of four other towns.