South Kordofan is one of the 18 wilayat or provinces of Sudan. It has an area of 158,355 km² and an estimated population of approximately 1,100,000 people (2000). Kaduqli is the capital of the state. It is centered around the Nuba Hills. Because among the states in (North) Sudan, South Kordofan is the only state that is producing oil, the ethnic Nubans who live there are being targeted by the northern military.
Under the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, residents of South Kordofan were to hold popular consultations in 2011 to determine the constitutional future of the state. However, South Kordofan governor Ahmed Haroun suspended the process and violence followed. Haroun had previously been charged with war crimes against civilians and crime against humanity by the International Criminal Court.