São Paulo (; ; Saint Paul) is the largest city in Brazil, the largest city in the southern hemisphere and Americas, and the world's eighth largest city by population. The metropolis is anchor to the São Paulo metropolitan area, ranked as the second most populous metropolitan area in the Americas and among the ten largest metropolitan areas on the planet. São Paulo is the capital of the state of São Paulo, which is the most populous Brazilian state, and exerts strong regional influence in commerce and finance as well as arts and entertainment. São Paulo maintains a strong international influence. The name of the city honors Saint Paul of Tarsus.
São Paulo has the second largest economy, by GDP, among Latin American and Brazilian cities. Its GDP per capita is the fifth highest among the larger Latin American cities as well as second highest in Brazil, behind only Brasília.
The metropolis has significant cultural, economic and political influence both nationally and internationally. It is home to several important monuments, parks and museums such as the Latin American Memorial, the Museum of the Portuguese Language, São Paulo Museum of Art, Museum of Ipiranga and the Ibirapuera Park. Paulista Avenue is the most important financial center of São Paulo. The city holds many high profile events, like the São Paulo Art Biennial, the Brazil Grand Prix Formula 1 Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo Fashion Week, ATP Brasil Open, and the São Paulo Indy 300. Sao Paulo hosts the world's largest gay pride parade according to the Guinness Book of World Records.
It is home to the São Paulo Stock Exchange, the Future Markets, and the Cereal Market Stock Exchanges (the second largest stock exchange in the World, in market value). São Paulo has been home to several of the tallest buildings in Brazil, including the building Mirante do Vale, Italia, Altino Arantes, North Tower of the UNSCOM (United Nations Centre Enterprise) and many others.
People from the city of São Paulo are known as paulistanos, while paulistas designates anyone from the whole of São Paulo state, including the paulistanos. The city's Latin motto, which it has shared with the battleship and the aircraft carrier named after it, is Non ducor, duco, which translates as "I am not led, I lead."
The city, which is also colloquially known as "Sampa" or "Cidade da Garoa" (city of drizzle), is also known for its unreliable weather, the size of its helicopter fleet, its architecture, gastronomy, severe traffic congestion, and multitude of skyscrapers. The city is considered an Alpha World City according to the Global City economic system. São Paulo is expected to have the 2nd biggest economic growth in the world, until 2025.
The village of São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga appeared on January 25, 1554, with the construction of the Colégio de São Paulo de Piratininga, a Jesuit college of twelve priests, among them Manuel da Nobrega and Jose de Anchieta, on top of a steep hill between the rivers Anhangabaú and Tamanduateí. This school, which functioned in a shack made of rammed earth, had, on purpose, catechesis of the Indians who lived in the Plateau region of Piratininga, separated from the coast by the Serra do Mar, called by the Indians "Serra Paranapiacaba."
The name was chosen because São Paulo on the foundation of the college was January 25, the same day on which the Catholic Church celebrates the conversion of the Apostle Paul of Tarsus, as said Father José de Anchieta in a letter to the Society of Jesus:
The Year January 25, 1554 we celebrate the Lord in impoverished and very narrow house, the first Mass on the day of the conversion of Paul of Tarsus and the Apostle Paul, so he dedicated to our house!
The settlement of the region's Courtyard of the College began in 1560, when, during the visit of Mem de Sá, Governor-General of Brazil, the Captaincy of São Vicente, he ordered the transfer of the population of the Village of Santo André da Borda do Campo, which was created by Tomé de Sousa in 1553, to the vicinity of the college, called "College of St. Paul Piratininga" high place and more appropriate (a steep hill adjacent to a large wetland, the lowland do Carmo, on the one hand and on the other hand, by someone downloaded the Anhangabaú Valley), to better protect themselves from the attacks of the Indians. Thus, in 1560, the village of Santo André da Borda do Campo region was transferred to the court of the College of São Paulo and was renamed Vila de São Paulo, belonging to the Captaincy of São Vicente.
On March 22, 1681, the Marquis de Cascais, the donee Captaincy of São Vicente, moved the capital of the Captaincy of São Vicente to the village of St. Paul, who became the "Head of the captaincy." The new capital was established in April 23, 1683, with large public celebrations.
As the poorest region of the Portuguese colony in America in São Paulo began the activity of the pioneers, who were scattered across the countryside hunting for Indians because they are extremely poor, the Paulistas could not buy African slaves. Came out, too, in search of gold and diamonds. The discovery of gold in the region of Minas Gerais, in the 1690s, meant that attention would turn to the kingdom São Paulo. Was created, then in November 3, 1709, the new Real Captaincy of São Paulo and Minas do Ouro, when they were purchased by the Portuguese crown, the Captaincy of São Paulo and Santo Amaro Captaincy of his former grantees. On July 11, 1711, the Town of St. Paul was elevated to city status. Soon after, around 1720, gold was found, by the pioneers in the regions where they are now the city of Cuiabá and Goiás city, which has led to the expansion of the Brazilian territory beyond the Line of Tordesillas.
When the gold ran out in the late eighteenth century, began the cycle of São Paulo cane sugar, which spread through the interior of the Captaincy of São Paulo. For the city of São Paulo, was drained sugar production to the Port of Santos. At that time, built the first modern highway between São Paulo and the coast: the Walk of Lorraine.
After the Independence of Brazil, held what is now Monument of Ipiranga, São Paulo received the title of Imperial City, awarded by Dom Pedro I of Brazil in 1823. In 1827, there was the creation of legal courses at the Convent of San Francisco (which would result in the future Faculty of Law of the Largo de São Francisco), and it gave a new impetus to the growth of the city, with the influx of students and teachers, thanks to which, the city is now called Imperial city and Borough of Students of St. Paul Piratininga.
Another factor in the growth of São Paulo was the expansion of coffee production, initially in the Vale do Paraíba, and then the regions of Campinas, Rio Claro, São Carlos and Ribeirão Preto. From 1869 onwards, São Paulo is the benefit of a railway linking the interior of the province of São Paulo to the port of Santos, the Railroad Santos-Jundiaí, called The Lady. Emerge in the late nineteenth century, several other railroads that connect the interior of the state capital, Sydney. São Paulo has become, then, the point of convergence of all railroads from the interior of the state. The production and export of coffee allows the city and the province of São Paulo, then called the State of São Paulo, a major economic and population growth.
In the middle of this century to its end, it was the period that the province began to receive a large number of immigrants, largely Italians and Portuguese many of whom settled in the capital, and the first industries began to settle.