Rukwa Region is one of Tanzania's 30 administrative regions. The regional capital is the municipality of Sumbawanga. According to the 2012 national census, the region had a population of 1,004,539. For 2002-2012, the region's 3.2 percent average annual population growth rate was tied for the third highest in the country. It was also the twentieth most densely populated region with 44 people per square kilometer.
The region is bordered to the north by the Kigoma and Tabora Regions, to the east by the Mbeya Region, to the south by Zambia, and to the west by Lake Tanganyika, which forms a border between Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.