Rio Claro is a city in the state of São Paulo in Brazil. The population in 2010 was 185,777 and the area is 521 km². The elevation is 613 m. It was incorporated as the village of São João Batista do Ribeirão Claro in 1827, and this incorporation is celebrated every year on June 24 as a municipal holiday.
The name was changed later to Rio Claro. Starting in the 19th century, Rio Claro attracted large numbers of immigrants from European countries, especially from Germany, Switzerland and Italy, but also from Spain, Portugal, some Eastern European countries, and a substantial community of Christian Arabs from the then Ottoman Empire (mostly Syrian and Lebanese).
Rio Claro used to play a very important role in the railway system of São Paulo state. Rio Claro hosts one public university, UNESP, offering courses in Geology, Geography, Environmental Engineering, Mathematics, Physics, Computer Science, Physical Education, Ecology, Biology and Pedagogy (teacher training).