Quezon City (also known to Filipinos by its initials as QC) is the most populous city in the Philippines. It is one of the cities that make up Metro Manila, the National Capital Region of the Philippines. Quezon City was named after Manuel L. Quezon, second President of the Philippines, who founded the city and developed it to replace the City of Manila as the national capital for 28 years from 1948 to 1976. Quezon City is not located in and should not be confused with Quezon Province, which was also named after the president. It is currently the largest city in Metro Manila in terms of land area.
Having been the national capital for almost three decades, Quezon City is the site of many government offices, including the Batasang Pambansa Complex, which is the seat of the House of Representatives (the lower chamber of the Philippine Congress). Quezon City also holds the University of the Philippines Diliman, the national university, and Ateneo de Manila University.
Before Quezon City was created, it was composed of small individual towns of San Francisco del Monte, Novaliches, and Balintawak. On August 23, 1896, the Katipunan led by its Supremo Andrés Bonifacio, launched the Philippine Revolution against the Spanish Empire in the house of Melchora Aquino in Pugad Lawin (now known as Bahay Toro, Project 8).
In the early 20th century, President Manuel L. Quezon dreamt of a city that would become the future capital of the country to replace Manila. It is believed that his earlier trip to Mexico influenced his vision.
In 1938, President Quezon created the People's Homesite Corporation and purchased from the vast Diliman estate of the Tuason family; this piece of land became known then as Barrio Obrero ("Workers' Village"). The National Assembly of the Philippine Commonwealth passed Commonwealth Act 502 known as the Charter of Quezon City originally proposed as "Balintawak City", Assemblymen Narciso Ramos and Ramon Mitra, Sr. successfully lobbied the assembly to name the city after the incumbent president. President Quezon allowed the bill to lapse into law without his signature on October 12, 1939, thus establishing Quezon City.
After the war, Republic Act No. 333 which redefined the Caloocan–Quezon City boundary was signed by Elpidio Quirino on July 17, 1948 declaring Quezon City to be the republic's capital, and specifying the city's area to be . The barrios of Baes, Talipapá, San Bartolomé, Pasong Tamó, Novaliches Población, Banlát, Kabuyao, Pugad Lawin, Bagbag, and Pasong Putik which belonged to Novaliches and had a combined area of about 8,100 hectares, were taken from Caloocan and ceded to Quezon City. This caused the territorial division of Caloocan into two, non-contiguous parts, the South section being the more urbanized part, and the North half being sub-rural. On June 16, 1950, the Quezon City Charter was revised by Republic Act No. 537, changing the city's boundaries to an area of .
Exactly six years after on June 16, 1956, more revisions to the city's land area were made by Republic Act No. 1575, which defined its area as . The website of the Quezon City government states that its present area is On October 1, 1975, Quezon City was the actual site of the "Thrilla in Manila" fight between Muhammad Ali and Joe Frazier. On November 7, 1975 the promulgation of Presidential Decree No. 824 of President Ferdinand Marcos established Metro Manila.
Quezon City became one of Metro Manila's 17 cities and municipalities. The next year, Presidential Decree No. 940 transferred the capital back to Manila on June 24, 1976. On March 31, 1978, President Ferdinand Marcos ordered the transfer of the remains of President Manuel L. Quezon from Manila North Cemetery to the completed Quezon Memorial Monument within Elliptical Road. On February 22, 1986, the Quezon City portion of the Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (between Camp Crame and Camp Aguinaldo) became the venue of the bloodless People Power Revolution that overthrew Marcos. On February 23, 1998, Republic Act. No. 8535 was signed by President Fidel V. Ramos.
The Act provided for the creation of the City of Novaliches comprising the 15 northernmost barangays of Quezon city. However, in the succeeding plebiscite on October 23, 1999, an overwhelming majority of Quezon City residents rejected the secession of Novaliches. Quezon City is the first local government in the Philippines with a computerized real estate assessment and payment system. The city government developed a database system that now contains around 400,000 property units with capability to record payments.
In 1938, President Quezon made a decision to push for a new capital city. Manila was getting crowded, and his military advisors (reportedly) told him that Manila, being by the bay, was an easy target for bombing by naval guns in case of attack–a real possibility in the late 1930s. Military advisers, however, did not anticipate aerial bombardment.
Quezon railroaded the idea of anew city at least away from Manila Bay (beyond the reach of naval guns). He contacted William E. Parsons, American architect and planner, who had been the consulting architect for the islands early in the American colonial period. Parsons came over in the summer of 1939 and helped select the Diliman (Tuason) estate as the site for the new city. Unfortunately he died later that year, leaving his partner Harry Frost to take over. Frost collaborated with Juan Arellano, engineer A.D. Williams, and landscape architect and planner Louis Croft to craft a grand master plan for the new capital.
The plan was approved by the Philippine authorities in 1941. The core of the new city was to be a 400 ha central green, about the size of New York's Central Park, and defined by North, South (Timog), East and West Avenues. On one corner of the proposed Diliman Quadrangle was delineated a 25-hectare elliptical site. This was to contain a large capitol building to house the Philippine Legislature and ancillary structures for the offices of representatives.
On either side of the giant ellipse were supposed to have been built the new Malacañan Palace on North Avenue (the present-day Veterans Memorial Hospital), and the Supreme Court Complex along East Avenue (now the site of East Avenue Medical Center). The three branches of government would finally and efficiently be located close to one another.