Quezon City (popularly known to Filipinos as QC) is one of the cities that make up Metro Manila, the National Capital Region of the Philippines, located on the island of Luzon. It is the most populous city in the country, and the largest city by area in Metro Manila. Quezon City was named after Manuel L. Quezon, former President of the Philippines, who founded the city and developed it to replace Manila as the country's capital for 28 years from 1948 to 1976. Quezon City is not located in and should not be confused with Quezon province, which was also named after the president.
Having been the national capital, Quezon City is the site of many government offices, including the Batasang Pambansa Complex which is the seat of the House of Representatives (the lower chamber in the Philippine Congress). The main campuses of two noteworthy universities, the Ateneo de Manila University and the country's national university, the University of the Philippines Diliman, are located in the city.
Before Quezon City was created, it was composed of small individual towns. These were San Francisco del Monte, Novaliches, and Balintawak. On August 23, 1896, the Katipunan led by Andres Bonifacio declared a revolution against Spain in the house of Melchora Aquino in Pugad Lawin (now known as Bahay Toro, Project 8). In the early 20th century, President Manuel L. Quezon dreamt of a city that would become the future capital of the country to replace Manila. It is believed that his earlier trip to Mexico influenced his vision.
In 1938, President Quezon created People's Homesite Corporation and purchased from the vast Diliman estate of the Tuason family (This piece of land became known as Bario Obrero "Home of the Middle Workers" before a name change to Quezon City). The National Assembly of the Philippine Commonwealth passed Commonwealth Act 502 known as the Charter of Quezon City originally proposed as Balintawak City, Assemblymen Narciso Ramos (father of President Fidel V. Ramos) and Ramon Mitra, Sr. (father of Speaker Ramon Mitra, Jr.) successfully lobbied the assembly to name the city after the incumbent president. President Quezon allowed the bill to lapse into law without his signature on October 12, 1939, thus establishing Quezon City.
After the war, Republic Act No. 333 which redefined the Caloocan-Quezon City boundary was signed by Elpidio Quirino on July 17, 1948 declaring Quezon City to be the republic's capital, and specifying the city's area to be . Baesa, Talipapa, San Bartolome, Pasong Tamo, Novaliches Poblacion, Banlat, Kabuyao, Pugad Lawin, Bagbag, Pasong Putik which formerly belonged to Novaliches and had an area of about 8,100 hectares, were taken from Caloocan and ceded to Quezon City. This caused the division of Caloocan into two separate parts, the South section being the urbanized part, the North section being sub-rural. On June 16, 1950, the Quezon City Charter was revised by Republic Act No. 537, changing the city's boundaries to an area of .
Exactly six years after on June 16, 1956, more revisions to the city's land area were made by Republic Act No. 1575, which defined its area as . The website of the Quezon City government states that its present area is On October 1, 1975, Quezon City was the actual site of the "Thrilla in Manila" fight between Muhammad Ali and Joe Frazier. On November 7, 1975 the promulgation of Presidential Decree No. 824 of President Ferdinand Marcos established Metro Manila.
Quezon City became one of Metro Manila's 17 cities and municipalities. The next year, Presidential Decree No. 940 transferred the capital back to Manila on June 24, 1976. On March 31, 1978, President Ferdinand Marcos ordered the transfer of the remains of President Manuel L. Quezon from Manila North Cemetery to the erected Quezon Memorial Monument within the Quezon Elliptical Road. Manuel L. Quezon Monument and the City Hall. On February 22, 1986, the Quezon City portion of the Epifanio de los Santos Avenue became the venue of the bloodless People Power Revolution. On February 23, 1998, Republic Act. No. 8535 was signed by President Fidel V. Ramos.
The Act provided for the creation of the City of Novaliches comprising the 15 northernmost barangays of Quezon city. However, in the succeeding plebiscite on October 23, 1999, an overwhelming majority of Quezon City residents rejected the secession of Novaliches. Quezon City is the first local government in the Philippines with a computerized real estate assessment and payment system. The city government developed a database system that now contains around 400,000 property units with capability to record payments.
In 1938, President Quezon made a decision to push for a new capital city. Manila was getting crowded, and his military advisors (reportedly) told him that Manila, being by the bay, was an easy target for bombardment by naval guns in case of attack, a real possibility in the late 1930s. Military advisers, however, did not anticipate bombing from the air.
Quezon railroaded the idea of a totally new city at least away from Manila Bay (beyond the reach of naval guns). He contacted William E. Parsons, American architect and planner, who had been the consulting architect for the islands early in the American colonial period. Parsons came over in the summer of 1939 and helped select the Diliman (Tuason) estate as the site for the new city. Unfortunately he passed away later that year. His partner Harry Frost took over. Frost collaborated with Juan Arellano, engineer AD Williams and landscape architect/planner Louis Croft to craft a grand master plan for the new capital, Quezon City.
The plan was approved by the Philippine authorities in 1941. The core of the new city was to be a 400 ha central green, about the size of New York's Central Park, and defined by North, South (Timog), East and West Avenues. On one corner of the proposed Diliman Quadrangle was delineated a 25-hectare elliptical site. This was to contain a large capitol building to house the Philippine Legislature and ancillary structures for the offices of representatives.
On either side of the giant ellipse were supposed to have been built the new Malacañan Palace, on the North Avenue (present day Veterans Memorial Hospital), and the Supreme Court Complex, on the East Avenue (present day East Avenue Medical Center). The three branches of government would finally and efficiently be located close to one another.