The Village of Poland is at the town line shared by the Town of Newport and the Town of Russia. The village is 16 miles north of the county seat in Herkimer and is northeast of Utica. The village is home to the Poland Volunteer Fire Company which has the largest fire protection district in New York State. Poland Central Schools, one of the largest school districts in New York State is also based in the town as is Poland Central School.
Poland was briefly called Maple Valley & Russia Flats when it was first settled around 1800 on land owned by Samuel Wright. The first post office, established in 1838 in the hotel at the corner of Main & Case Streets, was known as Danielsville, after Nahum Daniels who owned a large amount of land in the village. The first Postmaster, Joseph Benchley soon changed the name because of the confusion with Dansville in western N.Y. The simplest explanation for the name Poland is that is located adjacent to & southwest of Russia, just like Poland in Europe.
In 1869 there were 200 residents & approximately 60 buildings. By the 1880s there was a church, store, hotels, grist and saw mill, tannery sash & blind factory, wagon shop, 2 blacksmith shops, cheese box factory, cabinet shop, & a bootjack & ladder manufacturer & house building was booming. By 1906, there were more than 150 buildings even after 2 disastrous fires.
Poland was incorporated May 10, 1890 with Charles Bowen as the first President (Mayor).