Peterborough is a city. Historically it was part of Northamptonshire, but when County Councils were created in 1889 Peterborough was made part of the Soke of Peterborough administrative county, which was nominally still part of Northamptonshire, but independent of Northamptonshire County Council.
The Soke of Peterborough was merged with Huntingdonshire in 1965 to form the modern county of Huntingdon and Peterborough, which was itself abolished in 1974 and absorbed into Cambridgeshire. Since 1998, Peterborough has been a unitary authority, although remains part of the ceremonial county of Cambridgeshire.
Peterborough ( or ) is a Cathedral City and Unitary Authority Area in the East of England, with an estimated population of in June 2007. For ceremonial purposes it belongs to the county of Cambridgeshire. Situated north of London, the city stands on the River Nene which flows into the North Sea approximately to the north-east. The railway station is an important stop on the East Coast Main Line between London and Edinburgh.
The local topography is flat and low-lying, and in some places lies below sea level. The area known as the Fens is to the east of Peterborough. The City of Peterborough includes the outlying military installation of RAF Wittering, and as a unitary authority it borders Northamptonshire and Rutland to the west, Lincolnshire to the north, and Cambridgeshire to the south and east.
Human settlement in the area dates back to before the Bronze Age, as can be seen at the Flag Fen archaeological site to the east of the current city centre. This site also shows evidence of Roman occupation. The Anglo-Saxon period saw the establishment of a monastery, then known as Medeshamstede, which later became Peterborough Cathedral. The population grew rapidly following the arrival of the railways in the 19th century, and Peterborough became an industrial centre, particularly noted for its brick manufacture.
Following the Second World War, growth was limited until designation as a New Town in the 1960s. The population is once again undergoing rapid expansion and a £1 billion regeneration of the city centre and immediately surrounding area is under way. In common with much of the United Kingdom, industrial employment has fallen, with new jobs tending to be in financial services and distribution.
For more information, see the EN Wikipedia article Peterborough.
For more information, see the EN Wikipedia article Local Government in Peterborough.