Oxford Township is a township in Warren County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 2,514, reflecting an increase of 207 (+9.0%) from the 2,307 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 517 (+28.9%) from the 1,790 counted in the 1990 Census. It part of the eastern-most region of the Lehigh Valley.
Oxford Township was formed from portions of Greenwich Township on May 30, 1754, while the area was still part of Sussex County, and was incorporated on February 21, 1798, as one of New Jersey's initial group of townships by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature. Mansfield Township became part of the newly formed Warren County on November 20, 1824. Over the centuries since its creation, portions of the township were taken to form Knowlton Township (February 23, 1763), Franklin Township, Harmony Township and Hope Township (all on April 8, 1839), Belvidere (April 7, 1845) and White Township (April 9, 1913).
The origin of the name and the exact date of the township's creation is in dispute. One source says that the township was named after the university in England, and was formed in either 1753 or 1755, but another source claims that the township was named after an early settler named John Axford, who came to settle in the area with others between 1735 and 1739, and affirms that the township's creation was in 1755.
Oxford Furnace, constructed in 1741, was the third furnace in Colonial New Jersey and the first constructed at a site where iron ore was mined. Other furnaces used ore extracted from bogs in South Jersey, impure deposits called bog iron. Oxford Furnace operated the longest of any of the Colonial-era furnaces, not being "blown out" until 1884. In 1835, it was the site of America's first successful use of the hot blast in which preheated air was blown into the furnace, cutting production time. Though worn down by time, much of the site still stands. Oxford Furnace is listed on the State and the National Register of Historic Places.