Place:Oaxaca, Mexico

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NameOaxaca
Alt namesOaxaca statesource: Getty Vocabulary Program
TypeState
Coordinates17.0°N 96.5°W
Located inMexico
Contained Places
Deserted settlement
Monte Albán ( - 1800 )
Inhabited place
Acatlán de Pérez Figueroa
Albarradas
Amusgos
Asunción Nochixtlán
Ayoquezco
Calihualá
Candelaria Loxicha
Castillo Velasco
Chahuites
Chalcatongo de Hidalgo
Chazumba
Chilapa de Diaz
Chiquihuitlán de Juárez
Choapan
Ciudad Ixtepec
Coixtlahuaca
Cuilapan de Guerrero
Ejutla de Crespo
El Barrio
Espinal
Etla
Guadalupe de Ramírez
Guichicovi
Hidalgo Yalalag
Huajuápan de León
Huatulco
Huautla de Jiménez
Huazolotitlán
Ixtaltepec
Ixtlán de Juárez
Jalapa de Díaz
Jamiltepec
Juchitán de Zaragoza
Juquila
Juxtlahuaca
La Capilla
La Ciénega
Loma Bonita
Macedonio Alcalá
Magdalena Peñasco
Magdalena Tequisistlán
Matías Romero
Mazatlán de Flores
Miahuatlán de Porfirio Díaz
Mitla ( - 1600 )
Mixtán
Morro de Mazatán
Nejapa de Madero
Niltepec
Oaxaca de Juárez ( 1486 - )
Ocotlán de Morelos
Ojitlán
Paso Real de Sarabia
Pinotepa Nacional
Pinotepa de Don Luis
Pluma Hidalgo
Pochutla
Puerto Escondido
Puerto
Putla de Guerrero
Reforma de Pineda
Río Grande
Salina Cruz
San Agustín Atenango
San Agustín Loxicha
San Antonio Eloxochitlán
San Bartolomé Ayautla
San Blas Atempa
San Francisco Ixhuatán
San Francisco Sola
San Francisco del Mar
San José Ayuquila
San José de las Flores
San Juan Bautista Cuicatlán
San Juan Bautista Tuxtepec
San Juan Colorado
San Juan Lachao
San Juan Mazatlán
San Juan Quiahije
San Juan Sayultepec
San Marcos Arteaga
San Martín Peras
San Mateo del Mar
San Miguel Chimalapa
San Miguel Talea de Castro
San Miguel Tenango
San Pablo Guelatao
San Pablo Huitzo
San Pablo Huixtepec
San Pablo Villa de Mitla
San Pedro Apóstol
San Pedro Huamelula
San Pedro Jicayán
San Pedro Juchatengo
San Pedro Mixtepec
San Pedro Tapanatepec
San Pedro el Alto
Santa Catarina Yosonotú
Santa Cruz Tacache Mina
Santa María Chimalapa
Santa María Colotepec
Santa María Jalapa del Marqués
Santa María Zoquitlán
Santiago Apóstol
Santiago Ixtayutla
Santiago Lachiguirí
Santiago Tutla
Santiago Yaveo
Santiago Zacatepec
Santo Domingo Nuxaá
Santo Domingo Teojomulco
Santo Tomás Ocotepec
Silacayoapan
Sola de Vega
Suchilquitongo
Tamazulapan del Progreso
Tecomaxtlahuaca
Tehuantepec
Teita
Teitipac
Telixtlahuaca
Temascal
Teotitlán del Camino
Teotitlán del Valle
Tepelmeme de Morelos
Teposcolula
Tezoatlán de Segura y Luna
Tlacolula de Matamoros
Tlahuitoltepec
Tlalixtac de Cabrera
Tlaxiaco
Tututepec
Tuxtepec
Unión Hidalgo
Villa Alta
Xadani
Yanhuitlán
Yegoyoxi
Zaachila
Zanatepec
Zimatlán de Álvarez
Municipality
San Juan Bautista Tuxtepec
Unknown
Abejones
Agustín Amatengo
Agustín Atenango
Almoloyas Santa María
Asunción Acatlancito
Asunción Atoyaquillo
Asunción Cacalotepec
Asunción Cuyotepeji
Asunción Ixtaltepec
Atatlahuca San Juan Bautista
Añuma Santa María
Centro
Chicahuaxtla
Chicapa del Castro
Chichicaxtepec
Chiquihuitlán de Benito Juárez
Chiquihuitlán
Concepción Buenavista
Concepción Pápalo
Constancia del Rosario
Copala San Juan
Cosolapa
Cuicatlán
Cuyamecalco Villa de Zaragoza
Díaz Ordaz
Ejutla
El Espinal
El Vergel
El Zapote
Espíritu Santo Tamazulapan
Fresnillo de Trujano
Guadalupe Etla
Guadalupe Ramírez
Heroica Ciudad de Tlaxiaco
Hidalgo
Huajolotitlán
Huajuápam de León
Huajuápam
Iguitlán Plumas
Ixtepec
Jalapa del Marqués
Jalatlaco
Jayacaxtepec
Jerónimo Coatlán
Juchitán
La Pe
La Reforma
La Trinidad Vista Hermosa
Lachixio
Magdalena Apasco
Magdalena Jaltepec
Magdalena Jicotlán
Magdalena Mixtepec
Magdalena Ocotlán
Magdalena Tlacotepec
Magdalena Zahuatlán
Margarita Huitepec
Mariscala de Iturbide
Mecaltepec
Miahuatlán
Miltepec
Mixe
Mixiatlán de la Reforma
Moctum
Monjas
Mártires de Tacubaya
Nazareno Etla
Nieves Ixpantepec
Nochixtlán
Ocotlán
Ozolotepec
Piñas
Poblete
Progreso
Putla Villa de Guerrero
Putla
Quioquitani
Reyes Etla
Rojas de Cuauhtémoc
San Agustín Amatengo
San Agustín Chayuco
San Agustín Etla
San Agustín Tlacotepec
San Agustín Yatareni
San Agustín de las Juntas
San Agustín
San Andrés Cabecera Nueva
San Andrés Dinicuiti
San Andrés Huaxpaltepec
San Andrés Huayapam
San Andrés Ixtlahuaca
San Andrés Lagunas
San Andrés Miahuatlán
San Andrés Mixtepec
San Andrés Nuxiño
San Andrés Paxtlán
San Andrés Pápalo
San Andrés Sinaxtla
San Andrés Solaga
San Andrés Teotilalpan
San Andrés Tepetlapa
San Andrés Yaá
San Andrés Zabache
San Andrés Zautla
San Antonino Castillo Velasco
San Antonio Acutla
San Antonio Huitepec
San Antonio Monte Verde
San Antonio Nanahuatipan
San Antonio Sinicahua
San Antonio Tepetlapa
San Antonio de la Cal
San Antonio el Alto
San Antonio
San Baltazar Chichicapam
San Baltazar Guelavila
San Baltazar Loxicha
San Baltazar Yatzechi el Bajo
San Bartolo Coyotepec
San Bartolo Soyaltepec
San Bartolo Yautepec
San Bartolomé Loxicha
San Bartolomé Quialana
San Bartolomé Yatoni
San Bartolomé Yucuañe
San Bartolomé Zoogocho
San Bernardo Mixtepec
San Carlos Yautepec
San Cristóbal Amatlán
San Cristóbal Amoltepec
San Cristóbal Lachirioag
San Cristóbal Suchixtlahuaca
San Dionisio Ocotepec
San Dionisio Ocotlán
San Dionisio del Mar
San Esteban Atatlahuca
San Esteban Ozolotepec
San Esteban Teltitlán
San Esteban
San Felipe Lachilló
San Felipe Tejalapan
San Felipe Usila
San Felipe del Agua
San Felipe
San Francisco Cahuacuá
San Francisco Cajonos
San Francisco Chapulapa
San Francisco Chindúa
San Francisco Cozoaltepec
San Francisco Huehuetlán
San Francisco Ixhuatlán
San Francisco Ixpantepec
San Francisco Jaltepetongo
San Francisco Lachigolo
San Francisco Logueche
San Francisco Nuxaño
San Francisco Ozolotepec
San Francisco Teopan
San Francisco Tlapancingo
San Francisco Tutepetongo
San Francisco Yateé
San Francisco Yucucundo
San Francisco
San Gabriel Mixtepec
San Gregorio Ozolotepec
San Ildefonso Amatlán
San Ildefonso Ozolotepec
San Ildefonso Sola
San Ildefonso Villa Alta
San Isidro Chacalapa
San Isidro del Camino
San Jacinto Amilpas
San Jacinto Chilateca
San Jacinto Tlacotepec
San Jerónimo Coatlán
San Jerónimo Ixtepec
San Jerónimo Silacayoapilla
San Jerónimo Sosola
San Jerónimo Taviche
San Jerónimo Tecoatl
San Jerónimo Tititlán
San Jorge Nuchita
San José Chiltepec
San José Estancia Grande
San José Independencia
San José Ixtapam
San José Lachiguirí
San José Tenango
San José del Peñasco
San Juan Achiutla
San Juan Atepec
San Juan Bautista Animas Trujano
San Juan Bautista Atatlahuca
San Juan Bautista Guelache
San Juan Bautista Jayacatlán
San Juan Bautista Lo de Soto
San Juan Bautista Suchitepec
San Juan Bautista Tlachichilco
San Juan Bautista Tlacoatzintepec
San Juan Bautista Valle Nacional
San Juan Cacahuatepec
San Juan Chicomezúchil
San Juan Chilateca
San Juan Cieneguilla
San Juan Coatzóspan
San Juan Comaltepec
San Juan Cotzocón
San Juan Diuxi
San Juan Evangelista Analco
San Juan Guelavía
San Juan Guichicovi
San Juan Igualtepec
San Juan Juquila Mixes
San Juan Juquila Vijanos
San Juan Juquila
San Juan Lachigalla
San Juan Lajarcia
San Juan Lalana
San Juan Mixtepec
San Juan Numí
San Juan Ozolotepec
San Juan Petlapa
San Juan Quiotepec
San Juan Sosola
San Juan Tabaá
San Juan Tagui
San Juan Tamazola
San Juan Teita
San Juan Teitipac
San Juan Tepeuxila
San Juan Teponaxtla
San Juan Yalahui
San Juan Yatzona
San Juan Yaé
San Juan Yetzecovi
San Juan del Estado
San Juan del Río
San Juan los Cues
San Lorenzo Mixtepec
San Lorenzo Pápalo
San Lorenzo Victoria
San Lucas Camotlán
San Lucas Ojitlán
San Lucas Quiavini
San Lucas Zoquiápan
San Luis Amatlán
San Marcial Ozolotepec
San Marcos Monte de León
San Martín Huamelúlpam
San Martín Itunyoso
San Martín Lachilá
San Martín Tilcajete
San Martín Toxpálam
San Martín Zacatepec
San Martín de los Cansecos
San Mateo Cajonos
San Mateo Capulálpam
San Mateo Etlatongo
San Mateo Huautla
San Mateo Macuilzóchitl
San Mateo Mixtepec
San Mateo Nejápam
San Mateo Peñasco
San Mateo Piñas
San Mateo Río Hondo
San Mateo Sindihui
San Mateo Tlapiltepec
San Mateo Tuñuchi
San Mateo Yucutindoo
San Melchor Betaza
San Miguel Achiutla
San Miguel Ahuehuetitlán
San Miguel Aloápam
San Miguel Amatitlán
San Miguel Amatlán
San Miguel Chicahua
San Miguel Coatlán
San Miguel Ejutla
San Miguel Huautla
San Miguel Mixtepec
San Miguel Ozolotepec
San Miguel Panixtlahuaca
San Miguel Peras
San Miguel Piedras
San Miguel Quetzaltepec
San Miguel Santa Flor
San Miguel Soyaltepec
San Miguel Suchixtepec
San Miguel Tecomatlán
San Miguel Tequixtepec
San Miguel Tilquiapam
San Miguel Tlacamama
San Miguel Tlacotepec
San Miguel Tulancingo
San Miguel Yotao
San Miguel del Puerto
San Miguel del Río
San Miguel el Grande
San Nicolás Hidalgo
San Nicolás
San Pablo Coatlán
San Pablo Cuatro Venados
San Pablo Etla
San Pablo Güilá
San Pablo Macuiltianguis
San Pablo Ozolotepec
San Pablo Tijaltepec
San Pablo Yaganiza
San Pablo
San Pedro Amuzgos
San Pedro Atoyac
San Pedro Ayacaxtepec
San Pedro Cajonos
San Pedro Comitancillo
San Pedro Cuyaltepec
San Pedro Cántaros
San Pedro Huilotepec
San Pedro Ixcatlán
San Pedro Ixtlahuaca
San Pedro Jaltepetongo
San Pedro Jocotipac
San Pedro Molinos
San Pedro Mártir Quiechapa
San Pedro Mártir Yucuxaco
San Pedro Mártir
San Pedro Nopala
San Pedro Ocopetatillo
San Pedro Ocotepec
San Pedro Ozumacín
San Pedro Pochutla
San Pedro Quiatoni
San Pedro Sochiápan
San Pedro Taviche
San Pedro Teococuilco
San Pedro Teozacoalco
San Pedro Teutila
San Pedro Tidaá
San Pedro Topiltepec
San Pedro Totolapan
San Pedro Totomachápam
San Pedro Tututepec
San Pedro Yaneri
San Pedro Yucunama
San Pedro Yólox
San Pedro y San Pablo Ayutla
San Pedro y San Pablo Etla
San Pedro y San Pablo Teposcolula
San Pedro y San Pablo Tequixtepec
San Raymundo Jalpan
San Sebastián Abasolo
San Sebastián Coatlán
San Sebastián Ixcapa
San Sebastián Nicananduta
San Sebastián Río Hondo
San Sebastián Teitipac
San Sebastián Tlacolula
San Sebastián Tutla
San Simón Almolongas
San Simón Zahuatlán
San Vicente Coatlán
San Vicente Lachixío
San Vicente Nuñú
Santa Ana Ateixtlahuaca
Santa Ana Tlapacoyan
Santa Ana Yareni
Santa Ana Zegache
Santa Ana del Valle
Santa Ana
Santa Catalina Quieri
Santa Catalina de Sena
Santa Catarina Cuixtla
Santa Catarina Estetla
Santa Catarina Ixtepeji
Santa Catarina Juquila
Santa Catarina Lachatao
Santa Catarina Loxicha
Santa Catarina Mechoacán
Santa Catarina Minas
Santa Catarina Ocotlán
Santa Catarina Quiané
Santa Catarina Quioquitani
Santa Catarina Tayata
Santa Catarina Ticuá
Santa Catarina Yozonotu
Santa Catarina Zapoquila
Santa Cruz Acatepec
Santa Cruz Amilpas
Santa Cruz Itundujia
Santa Cruz Mixtepec
Santa Cruz Nundaco
Santa Cruz Ozolotepec
Santa Cruz Papalutla
Santa Cruz Tacache de Mina
Santa Cruz Tacahua
Santa Cruz Tayata
Santa Cruz Xitla
Santa Cruz Xoxocotlán
Santa Cruz Yagavila
Santa Cruz Zenzontepec
Santa Cruz
Santa Gertrudis Cozolotepec
Santa Gertrudis
Santa Inés Yatzeche
Santa Inés del Monte
Santa Inés del Río
Santa Lucía Monteverde
Santa Lucía Ocotlán
Santa Lucía Teotepec
Santa Lucía del Camino
Santa Lucía
Santa Marta Chichihualtepec
Santa María Alotepec
Santa María Amialtepec
Santa María Apazco
Santa María Asunción Totontepec
Santa María Asunción
Santa María Atzompa
Santa María Ayoquezco de Aldama
Santa María Camotlán
Santa María Chachoapam
Santa María Chilchotla
Santa María Coatlán
Santa María Cortijos
Santa María Coyotepec
Santa María Cuquila
Santa María Ecatepec
Santa María Guelaxé
Santa María Guienagati
Santa María Huatulco
Santa María Ipalapa
Santa María Ixcatlán
Santa María Jacatepec
Santa María Jaltianguis
Santa María Jiotes
Santa María Lachixío
Santa María Magdalena Tiltepec
Santa María Mixistlán
Santa María Mixtequilla
Santa María Natívitas
Santa María Nduayaco
Santa María Ocotepec
Santa María Ozolotepec
Santa María Petapa
Santa María Peñoles
Santa María Pápalo
Santa María Quiegolani
Santa María Sola
Santa María Tataltepec
Santa María Tecomavaca
Santa María Temascaltepec
Santa María Temaxcalapa
Santa María Temaxcaltepec
Santa María Teopoxco
Santa María Tepantlali
Santa María Texcatitlán
Santa María Tlalixtac
Santa María Tonameca
Santa María Totolapilla
Santa María Yahuive
Santa María Yalina
Santa María Yavesía
Santa María Yolotepec
Santa María Yosoyúa
Santa María Yucuhiti
Santa María Yucuñuti
Santa María Yutanduchi
Santa María Zacatepec
Santa María Zaniza
Santa María Zoogochí
Santa María del Rosario
Santa María del Tule
Santiago Amatepec
Santiago Amoltepec
Santiago Apoala
Santiago Astata
Santiago Atitlán
Santiago Ayuquililla
Santiago Cacaloxtepec
Santiago Camotlán
Santiago Chilixtlahuaca
Santiago Choapan
Santiago Coicoyan
Santiago Comaltepec
Santiago Guevea
Santiago Huajolotitlán
Santiago Huauclilla
Santiago Ixcuintepec
Santiago Jamiltepec
Santiago Jareta
Santiago Jocotepec
Santiago Juxtlahuaca
Santiago Lalopa
Santiago Laollaga
Santiago Laxopa
Santiago Llano Grande
Santiago Matatlán
Santiago Miltepec
Santiago Minas
Santiago Nacaltepec
Santiago Nejapilla
Santiago Nundichi
Santiago Nuyoó
Santiago Pinotepa Nacional
Santiago Tamazola
Santiago Tapextla
Santiago Tejupan
Santiago Tenango
Santiago Tetepec
Santiago Texcalcingo
Santiago Textitlán
Santiago Tilantongo
Santiago Tillo
Santiago Tlazoyaltepec
Santiago Xanica
Santiago Xiacuí
Santiago Yaitepec
Santiago Yolomécatl
Santiago Yosondúa
Santiago Yucuyachi
Santiago Zoochila
Santiago Zoquiapan
Santiago del Río
Santo Domingo Albarradas
Santo Domingo Amatlán
Santo Domingo Armenta
Santo Domingo Cacalotepec
Santo Domingo Chihuitán
Santo Domingo Ixcatlán
Santo Domingo Latani
Santo Domingo Narro
Santo Domingo Ozolotepec
Santo Domingo Petapa
Santo Domingo Roayaga
Santo Domingo Tepuxtepec
Santo Domingo Tlatayapan
Santo Domingo Tomaltepec
Santo Domingo Tonaltepec
Santo Domingo Tonalá
Santo Domingo Xagacía
Santo Domingo Yanhuitlán
Santo Domingo Yodohino
Santo Domingo Zanatepec
Santo Tomás Jalieza
Santo Tomás Lachitaá
Santo Tomás Mazaltepec
Santo Tomás Tamazulapan
Santos Reyes Nopala
Santos Reyes Pápalo
Santos Reyes Tepejillo
Santos Reyes Yucuná
Santos Reyes
Sitio de Xitlapehua
Soledad Etla
Sosola San Juan
Tamazulapam del Espiritu Santo
Tamazulápam del Progreso
Tanetze de Zaragoza
Tanetze
Taniche
Tejupan de la Unión
Teojomulco
Teotitlán de Flores Magón
Teotitlán
Teotongo
Teozacoalco
Tepetlapa
Tepitongo
Tilantongo
Tlacochahuaya de Morelos
Tlacolula
Tlacotepec Plumas
Tlapacingo
Tonaguía
Totontepec Villa de Morelos
Trapiche de Santa Cruz
Trinidad de Zaachila
Valerio Trujano
Valle Nacional
Villa Hidalgo
Villa Talea de Catsro
Villa de Etla
Villa de Zaachila
Yacochi
Yautepec
Yaxe
Yodocono de Porfirio Díaz
Yogana
Yolotepec
Zapotitlán Lagunas
Zapotitlán Palmas
Zapotitlán del Río
Zautla
Zimatlán
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Oaxaca (, from ), officially Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca, is one of the 31 states which, along with the Federal District, make up the 32 federative entities of Mexico. It is divided into 571 municipalities; of which 418 (almost three quarters) are governed by the system of Usos y costumbres (customs and traditions) with recognized local forms of self governance. Its capital city is Oaxaca de Juárez.

It is located in Southwestern Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Guerrero to the west, Puebla to the northwest, Veracruz to the north, Chiapas to the east. To the south, Oaxaca has a significant coastline on the Pacific Ocean.

The state is best known for its indigenous peoples and cultures. The most numerous and best known are the Zapotecs and the Mixtecs, but there are sixteen that are officially recognized. These cultures have survived better than most others in Mexico due to the state's rugged and isolating terrain. Most live in the Central Valleys region, which is also an important area for tourism, attracting people for its archeological sites such as Monte Albán, native culture and crafts. Another important tourist area is the coast, which has the major resort of Huatulco. Oaxaca is also one of the most biologically diverse states in Mexico, ranking in the top three, along with Chiapas and Veracruz, for numbers of reptiles, amphibians, mammals and plants.

Contents

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Name

The name of the state comes from the name of its capital city, Oaxaca. This name comes from the Nahuatl word "Huaxyacac", which refers to a tree called a "guaje" (Leucaena leucocephala) found around the capital city. The name was originally applied to the Valley of Oaxaca by Nahuatl speaking Aztecs and passed on to the Spanish during the conquest of the Oaxaca region. The modern state was created in 1824, and the state seal was designed by Alfredo Canseco Feraud and approved by the government of Eduardo Vasconcelos.

Pre-historic and pre-Hispanic period

Most of what is known about pre-historic Oaxaca comes from archeological work in the Central Valleys region. Evidence of human habitation dating back to about 11,000 years BC has been found in the Guilá Naquitz cave near the town of Mitla. This area was recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2010 in recognition for the "earliest known evidence of domesticated plants in the continent, while corn cob fragments from the same cave are said to be the earliest documented evidence for the domestication of maize." More finds of nomadic peoples date back to about 5000 BC, with some evidence of the beginning of agriculture. By 2000 BC, agriculture had been established in the Central Valleys region of the state, with sedentary villages. The diet developed around this time would remain until the Spanish Conquest, consisting primarily of harvested corn, beans, chocolate, tomatoes, chili peppers, squash and gourds. Meat was generally hunted and included tepescuintle, turkey, deer, peccary, armadillo and iguana.[1]

The oldest known major settlements, such as Yanhuitlán and Laguna Zope are located in this area as well. The latter settlement is known for its small figures called "pretty women" or "baby face." Between 1200 and 900 BC, pottery was being produced in the area as well. This pottery has been linked with similar work done in La Victoria, Guatemala. Other important settlements from the same time period include Tierras Largas, San José Mogote and Guadalupe, whose ceramics show Olmec influence.[2] The major native language family, Oto-Manguean, is thought to have been spoken in northern Oaxaca around 4400 BC and to have evolved into nine distinct branches by 1500 BC.[1]

Historic events in Oaxaca as far back as the 12th century are described in pictographic codices painted by Zapotecs and Mixtecs in the beginning of the colonial period, but outside of the information that can be obtained through their study, little historical information from pre-colonial Oaxaca exist, and our knowledge of this period relies largely on archaeological remains.[3] By 500 BC, the central valleys of Oaxaca were mostly inhabited by the Zapotecs, with the Mixtecs on the western side. These two groups were often in conflict throughout the pre-Hispanic period. Archeological evidence indicates that between 750 and 1521, there may have been population peaks of as high as 2.5 million.[3]

The Zapotecs were the earliest to gain dominance over the Central Valleys region.[1] The first major dominion was centered in Monte Albán, which flourished from 500 BC until AD 750 .[3] At its height, Monte Albán was home to some 25,000 people and was the capital city of the Zapotec nation.[1] It remained a secondary center of power for the Zapotecs until the Mixtecs overran it in 1325.[4] The site contains a number of notable features including the Danzantes, a set of stone reliefs and the finding of fine quality ceramics.[2]

Starting from AD 750 previous large urban centers such as Monte Alban fell across the Oaxaca area and smaller dominions grew and evolved until the Spanish Conquest in 1521.[3] Between 700 and 1300, the Mixtec were scattered among various dominions, including those of Achiutla, Tequixtepec-Chazumba, Apoala and Coixtlahuaca. The Zapotecs occupied a large region from Central Valleys region to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec.[3] However, no major city state like Monte Albán arose again, with villages and city-states remaining small, between 1,000 and 3,000 people with a palace, temple, market and residences. In a number of cases, there were Mesoamerican ball courts as well. These and larger centers also functioned as military fortresses in time of invasion. Important Zapotec and Mixtec sites include Yagul, Zaachila, Inguiteria, Yanhuitlan, Tamazulapan, Tejupan, and Teposcolula. During nearly all of this time, these various entities were at war with one another, and faced the threat of Aztec expansion.[3]

While the Zapotec remained dominant in many parts of the Central Valleys and into the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, the Mixtec were pushing into Zapotec territory, taking Monte Alban. In areas they conquered, they became prolific builders, leaving behind numerous and still unexplored sites. However, the conquest of the Central Valleys was never completed with pressure coming from the Aztecs in Tenochtitlan in the 14th and 15th centuries. The Zapotecs and Mixtecs both allied themselves and fought among themselves as they tried to maintain their lands and valuable trade routes between the high central plains of Mexico and Central America.[1][4]

The first Aztecs arrived to the Oaxaca area in 1250, but true expansion into the region began in the 15th century. In 1457, Moctezuma I invaded the Tlaxiaco and Coixtlahuaca areas, gaining control, demanding tribute and establishing military outposts.[3] These were Mixtec lands at first, pushing these people even further into Zapotec territory.[2] Under Axayacatl and Tizoc, the Aztec began to take control of trade routes in the area and part of the Pacific Coast. By this time, the Zapotec were led by Cosijoeza with the government in Zaachila in the latter 15th century. Under Ahuitzotl, the Aztecs temporarily pushed the Zapotecs into Tehuantepec and established a permanent military base at Huaxyacac (Oaxaca city). The Aztecs were stopped only by the Spanish Conquest.[2] These conquests would change most of the place names in parts of Oaxaca to those from the Nahuatl language.[3] In 1486 the Aztecs established a fort on the hill of Huaxyácac (now called El Fortín), overlooking the present city of Oaxaca. This was the major Aztec military base charged with the enforcement of tribute collection and control of trade routes.[1]

However, Aztec rule in Oaxaca would last only a little more than thirty years.[1]

Colonial period

Very soon after the fall of Tenochtitlan (Mexico City), Spaniards arrived in Oaxaca. Moctezuma II had informed Hernán Cortés that the area had gold. In addition, when Zapotec leaders heard about the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, they sent an offer of an alliance.[1] Several captains and representatives were sent to the area to explore the area, looking for gold, and routes to the Pacific to establish trade routes to Asian spice markets. The most prominent of Cortés' captains to arrive here were Gonzalo de Sandoval, Francisco de Orozco and Pedro de Alvarado. They overcame the main Aztec military stronghold only four months after the fall of Tenochtitlan.[2] Their reports about the area prompted Cortés to seek the title of the Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca from the Spanish Crown.[1]

The valley Zapotecs, the Mixtecs of the Upper Mixteca, the Mazatecas and the Cuicatecas, for the most part, choose not to fight the newcomers, instead negotiating to keep most of the old hierarchy but with ultimate authority to the Spanish.[2][1] Resistance to the new order was sporadic and confined to the Pacific coastal plain, the Zapotec Sierra, the Mixea region and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. The Mixes put the most resistance to intrusions on their lands. They not only resisted during the first decade or so of Spanish occupation, like other groups, but through the rest of the 16th century. The last major Mixe rebellion came in 1570, when they burned and looted Zapotec communities and threatened to destroy the Spanish presidio of Villa Alta. However, this rebellion was put down by the Spanish, in alliance with about 2,000 Mixtecs and Aztecs. From this point, the Mixe retreated far into the mountains to isolate themselves, where they are found today.[1]

The first priest in the territory was Juan Diaz, who accompanied Francisco de Orozco and build the first church in what is now the city of Oaxaca. He was followed by Bartolome de Olmade and others who began the superficial conversion of a number of indigenous, including the baptism of Zapotec leader Cosijoeza. In 1528, the Dominicans settled in the city of Oaxaca, forming the Bishopric of Oaxaca in 1535, and began to spread out from there, eventually reaching Tehuantepec and the coast. Other orders followed such as the Jesuits in 1596, the Mercedarians in 1601, and others in the 17th and 18th centuries.[2][1]

Spanish conquest and subsequent colonization had a devastating effect on the native population, due to European diseases and forced labor. In some areas the native population nearly or completely disappeared.[3] It has been estimated that the native population of the region declined from 1.5 million in 1520 to 150,000 in 1650.[1] Eventually, this would prompt the Spanish to import African slaves to some regions of the state, mostly in the Costa Chica. This poor treatment of indigenous and African populations would continue though the colonial period. Initially, the Spanish did not change native power structures and allowed nobles to keep their privileges as long as they were loyal to the Spanish crown. However, all indigenous were eventually lumped into the category as the Spanish halted warfare among the city-states and creating the official category of "indio" (Indian).[3]

Settlers arriving from Spain brought with them domestic animals that had never been seen in Oaxaca: horses, cows, goats, sheep, chickens, mules and oxen.[1] New crops such as sugar cane, vanilla and tobacco were introduced.[3] However, landholding still remained mostly in indigenous hands, in spite of the fact that only 9% of Oaxaca's terrain is arable. Spanish official and merchants would try to take indigenous privileges due to their social status, but this was resisted. While some of this was violent, the dominant response was to resort to the administrative-judicial system or yield. Violence was reserved for the worst of situations.[1] One native product to reach economic importance during the colonial period was the cochineal insect, used for the making of dyes for textiles. This product was exported to Europe, especially in the 17th and 18th centuries. The use of this insect faded in the 19th century with the discovery of cheaper dyes.[3]

For much of the colonial period, the state (then an intendencia or province) was relatively isolated with few roads and other forms of communication. Most politics and social issues were strictly on the local level. Despite Spanish domination, the indigenous peoples of Oaxaca have maintained much of their culture and identity, more so than most other places in Mexico. Part of this is due to the geography of the land, making many communities isolated.[3]

Independence

By 1810, the city of Oaxaca had 18,000 inhabitants, most of whom where mestizos or mixed indigenous/European. During the Mexican War of Independence the government of this area remained loyal to the Spanish Crown. When representatives of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla came to meet with them, they were hanged and their heads left out in view. Some early rebel groups emerged in the state, such as those led by Felipe Tinoco and Catarino Palacios, but they were also eventually executed. After 1812, insurgents began to have some success in the state, especially in the areas around Huajuapan de León, where Valerio Trujano defended the city against royalist forces until José María Morelos y Pavón was able to come in with support to keep the area in rebel hands. After that point, insurgents had greater success in various parts of the state, but the capital remained in royalist hands until the end of the war.[2]

The state was initially a department after the war ended in 1821, but after the fall of emperor Agustín de Iturbide, it became a state in 1824 with Jose Maria Murguia named as its first governor.[2]

During the 19th century, Oaxaca and the rest of Mexico was split between liberal (federalist) and conservative (centralist) factions. The political and military struggles between the factions resulted in wars and intrigues. Vicente Guerrero, a liberal, was executed by firing squad in Cuilapam in 1831. Liberal Manuel Gomez Pedraza became governor in 1832 but was opposed by General Estaban Moctezuma. He and commandant Luis Quintanar persecuted liberals in the state, including Benito Juárez. The constant warfare had a negative effect on the state's economy and those in the Tehuantepec area supported a separatist movement which was partially successful in the 1850s.[2]

Two Oaxacans, Benito Juarez and Porfirio Díaz were prominent players in the Reform War. It is difficult to overstate Juárez's meaning to the state. He was born on March 21, 1806 in the village of San Pablo Guelatao and was full blooded Zapotec. He began his career studying to be a priest then a lawyer.[1] In 1847, Juarez became governor of Oaxaca, but still faced stern opposition from conservatives such as Lope San Germán. With the success of the Plan de Ayutla, Juarez became governor again, and worked to remove privileges and properties from the Church and landed classes. The Constitution of 1857, was ratified in Oaxaca city, and Juarez left the governor's position to become President of Mexico.[2] He was president during one of Mexico's most turbulent times, fighting invading French forces and conservatives. As a liberal, he imposed many of the reforms which remain today including those in education and separation of church and state. He is also considered to be a legend and a symbol for the indigenous population of the state.[1]

Porfirio Díaz was Juárez's ally through the French Intervention. French imperial forces took Oaxaca city, which was defended by Porfirio Diaz, landing the latter in prison. The capital was later recaptured by the liberals under Carlos Oronoz. However, soon after Juarez took back the presidency, Porfirio Diaz declared rebellion against him from Oaxaca in 1872 under the Plan de Tuxtepec. Juárez died in office.(bjarezgob) Diaz would succeed in obtaining the presidency and did not relinquish it until the Mexican Revolution.[2]

Late 19th century to present

During Diaz's rule, called the Porfiriato, a number of modernization efforts were undertaken in the state such as public lighting, first with gas then with electricity, railroad lines, new agriculture techniques and the revitalization of commerce. However, most of the benefits of these advances went to national and international corporations and workers and indigenous farmers organized against the regime.[2]

After the Mexican Revolution broke out, Diaz was soon ousted and the rest of the war was among the various factions that had power in different parts of the country. Various leaders such as Francisco I. Madero, Victoriano Huerta and Venustiano Carranza came to the state during this time. However; the most important force in the area was the Liberation Army of the South under Emiliano Zapata. This army would ally and fight against the previous leaders, especially Venustiano Carranza,[2] and hold various portions of the state until 1920.[1] At the end of the Revolution, a new state constitution was written and accepted in 1922.[2]

A series of major disasters occurred in the state from the 1920s to the 1940s. In 1928, a serious of earthquakes destroyed many of the buildings in the capital. A much larger earthquake in 1931, was the largest in the state's history, devastating a number of cities along the coast. The 1930s brought the Great Depression, which along with the disasters, prompted wide scale migration to Mexico City. In 1944, torrential rains caused massive flooding in the Tuxtepec region, causing hundreds of deaths.

In the 1940s and 1950s, new infrastructure projects were begun. These included the Izúcar-Tehuantepec section of the Panamerican Highway and the construction of the Miguel Alemán Dam.[5] From the 1980s to the present, there has been much development of the tourism industry in the state. This tourism, as well as the population growth of the capital, prompted the construction of the Oaxaca-Mexico City highway in 1994. Development of tourism has been strongest in the Central Valleys area surrounding the capital, with secondary developments in Huatulco and other locations along the coast. This development was threatened by the violence associated with the 2006 uprising, which severely curtailed the number of incoming tourists for several years.[6]

On February 12, 2008, a 6.4 magnitude earthquake was recorded in Oaxaca.

From the Mexican Revolution until the 2000s, the ruling PRI party held control of almost all of Oaxacan politics from the local to the state level. Challenges to the rule were sporadic and included the student movements of the 1970s, which did bring down the state government. Teachers' strikes had been frequent since then, culminating in the 2006 uprising in Oaxaca city, which brought in groups protesting the heavy marginalization of the poor.[6] The PRI lost its 80-year hold on the state government in 2010 with the election of the PAN gubernatorial candidate Gabino Cué Monteagudo. This has led to speculation of major changes for the state.[7]

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