The Town of Norwich is located near the center of the county. The City of Norwich is surrounded on all sides by the northern part of the town.
The first settlers arrived around 1788.
The Town of Norwich was formed in 1793 from the Towns of Union (now in Broome County) and Bainbridge. Afterwards, Norwich, as a "mother town" of the county, lost substantial territory in the formation of new towns. In 1806, Norwich gave up territory to form the Towns of Pharsalia, Plymouth and Preston. More of Norwich was lost in 1807 to form part of New Berlin and part of the Town of Columbus. In 1808 and 1820, Norwich exchanged territory with the Town of Preston.