Norfolk Island (; Norfuk: Norf'k Ailen) is a small island in the Pacific Ocean located between Australia, New Zealand and New Caledonia, directly east of mainland Australia's Evans Head, and about from Lord Howe Island. The island is part of the Commonwealth of Australia, and enjoys a large degree of self-governance. Together with two neighbouring islands, it forms one of Australia's external territories. It has 2,300 inhabitants living on a total area of about . Its capital is Kingston.
Originally settled by East Polynesians, Norfolk Island was colonised by Great Britain as part of its settlement of Australia in 1788. The island served as a convict penal settlement until May 1855, except for an 11-year hiatus between 1814 and 1825, when it was abandoned. In 1856 permanent civilian residence on the island began when it was settled from Pitcairn. In 1901, the island became a part of the Commonwealth of Australia.
The evergreen Norfolk Island pine is a symbol of the island and thus pictured on its flag. Native to the island, the pine is a key export industry for Norfolk Island, being a popular ornamental tree on mainland Australia, where two related species grow, and also worldwide.
How places in Norfolk Island are organized
All places in Norfolk Island
Further information on historical place organization in Norfolk Island