The village of Newtown is part of the civil parish of Newtown, and, since 1974, is part of the Burghclere, Highclere and St. Mary Bourne ward of Basingstoke and Deane borough council. The borough council is a non-metropolitan district of Hampshire County Council.
Between 1200 and 1255 the Bishops of Winchester created six new towns; Newtown, Overton and New Alresford in Hampshire, Newtown on the Isle of Wight, and Hindon and Downton, Wiltshire in Wiltshire. The medieval borough of Newtown was formed from part of the parish of Burghclere, and flourished in the 13th and 14th centuries. The adjacent Sandleford Priory in Sandleford, over the border on the other side of the River Enborne (Alder stream) in Berkshire, had been founded on an earlier establishment between 1193 and 1202. Newtown as a result it was sometimes known as Novus Burgus de Clere, or Nova villa de Sandelford. In 1218, the grant of a market and a fair at Newtown was made to the Bishop of Winchester (at the time Peter des Roches) and in the bishop's account roll of 1218-19 fifty-two burgesses are listed. The burgesses occupied sixty-seven plots of land in the new borough. The Prior of Sandleford bought three plots. Also in 1218-19, a chapel was built for the local people of the new borough, and was originally known as the Chapel of Sandleford.
In 1224-25, a ditch was dug around the town at the bishop's expense and, in 1225-26, the bishop's own house was built in the borough. By the 16th century, the town had begun to decay, although the reason for its decline is not known, and, in 1674, only sixty-four houses remained, probably scattered throughout the parish. No traces of the medieval borough can be seen above ground today.
Butchers, bakers, ironmongers and shoemakers were listed in the old borough records, but more recently the parish has been famed locally for making wooden rakes.
For more information, see the EN Wikipedia article Newtown, Hampshire. Includes "Mrs Elizabeth Montagu's 1743 description of Newtown"