Rossington had a population of 13,255 in the UK census of 2001. To the northwest, the village borders Loversall, with the boundary following the River Torne, passing directly next to the western edge of the former Rossington Main Colliery.
There are remains of both a Roman fort and Roman pottery kilns in the area. The name Rossington translates from the old Anglo-Saxon name of 'Farm on the Moor'. In later times, Rossington housed a small village and both Rossington Hall and Shooters Hill Hall.
The area known as "Rossington" is made up of a number of villages and hamlets, namely Hesley, Littleworth, Old Rossington, New Rossington, Rossington Bridge and Shooters Hill. Littleworth was enlarged to a great degree in the 1970s, when Littleworth Park Estate was built. The New Village began to be built around the time of the sinking of the Colliery. Rossington Bridge, although now only consisting of a few buildings is the oldest of the four settlements; situated on the crossing of the Roman road from Lincoln (Lindvm) to York (Ebvrscvm) via Doncaster (Danvm), it was once the site of a major Roman fort (the largest between Lincoln and York). Rossington Bridge was also an important staging post on the Great North Road.
In more recent years, Old Rossington has seen the building of large levels of new, private housing raising the village's affluence.
It was, however in the mid-twentieth century that saw the largest expansion of the area. The need for workers in and around the Rossington Main Colliery led to the building of large numbers of housing near to the pit in what was called New Rossington. After the end of British Coal in the early 1990s, the mine was able to keep operating and became one of the last in the area to keep producing coal albeit at a greatly reduced scale. However, with the decline of the mine, the village suffered high levels of unemployment and poverty throughout the 1990s and early 2000s. The Colliery finally closed in 2007.