New Bohemia was established early in the 20th century by a group of Bohemians and Slovaks from the industrial and mining sections of western Pennsylvania and eastern Ohio. Their success in rehabilitating worn-out farms, where production had almost vanished under one-crop planting year after year, led to the immigration of other Bohemians and Slovaks, with a sprinkling of Germans, Poles, Russians, and Lithuanians, many of whom came directly from their homelands.
In the late 1980s and Interstate 295 was built through the area which brought commercial development to the previously rural community. Several farms were taken to construct the highway and a cloverleaf interchange at Interstate 295 and U.S. Route 460. Due to its location along the Norfolk Southern Railway at the junction of Interstate 295 and U.S. Route 460, and its close proximity to the junction of Interstate 95 and Interstate 85 much of the remaining farmland and timberland around New Bohemia has been sold for commercial development and several large tracts were recently purchased by Prince George County for the development of an Industrial Park.