Moulton is the primary village of an extensive Fenland parish, over in length. The civil parish includes the smaller hamlets and villages of Moulton Chapel, Moulton Seas End and Moulton Eaugate. The separate village of Moulton Chapel is about south of Moulton and a similar distance east of Cowbit.
All Saints' Church was built about 1180, instigated by Prior John of Spalding. It took approximately 60 to 70 years to build, and was heavily restored from 1866 to 1867 by William Smith. The church has a rood screen dating from around 1425. There is a memorial in the floor of the church to Prudence Corby, who apparently died on "Julye the 36th 1793".
Moulton Windmill, built in 1822, ground wheat and other products until 1995, despite losing its sails in 1895. The Friends of Moulton Mill was established to restore the Grade I listed mill to full working order. The mill was a subject of the first series of BBC2's Restoration, after which it received an Heritage Lottery Fund grant, and benefited from fundraising events. A café and shop was built, and the mill adapted for disabled access.
The remains of Moulton Castle, now a small mound of earth and a moat, lie south of the village.
Moulton Grammar School was founded through an endowment given in the will of John Harrox (died 1561) who was steward to Sir John Harrington of Weston. The School opened in 1562 with ten pupils and continued to educate boys until 1939 when it merged with Spalding Grammar School. Some school buildings still exist but are now private residences. John Harrox is commemorated in the name of the Primary School and the Moulton Harrox sports club. The Moulton Harrox Educational Foundation uses income from the management of more than to support the education of young people of the district. Old boys of the Grammar School included:
Moulton railway station closed to passengers in 1959. The station buildings remain but are now private residences although some of the old platform structures still exist.
During the 1970s Moulton was home to an astronomical observatory that was relocated to Sussex in the early 1980s.
On 28 July 2005, a mini-tornado swept through the village, damaging the church roof and some other properties in the vicinity, depositing glass tens of metres away.