Moose Factory is a community in the Cochrane District, Ontario, Canada. It is located on Moose Factory Island, near the mouth of the Moose River, which is at the southern end of James Bay. It was the first English-speaking settlement in Ontario and the second Hudson's Bay Company post to be set up in North America after Fort Rupert. On the mainland, across the Moose River, is the nearby community of Moosonee, which is accessible by water taxi in the summer, ice road in the winter and chartered helicopter in the off-season (break-up or freeze-up).
The settlement is mainly inhabited by the Cree, but the hospital which provides healthcare services to the people of the island and surrounding area (collectively known as the Weeneebayko Area Health Authority) attracts a diverse group of people as an employer.
The term "Factory" refers to the jurisdiction of a factor (a business agent or merchant in charge of buying or selling) of the Hudson's Bay Company. Just as a rector presides over a rectory, a factor holds authority over a factory.