Montrouge is a commune in the southern Parisian suburbs, located from the center of Paris, France. It is one of the most densely populated municipalities in Europe. After a long period of decline, the population has increased again in recent years.
There are a number of colorful traditions about the name "Montrouge", but it appears that it in fact comes from the Latin words monte (mountain) and rubeus (red), meaning Red Mountain, because of the reddish color of the earth in this area.
The name of the community was first mentioned in monastery documents in 1194.
Throughout the Middle Ages, the hamlet was home to monasteries and a number of religious orders, while in the 15th century it became the site of quarries used for the reconstruction of Paris. The late sixteenth century saw the plain of Montrouge named "reserve for royal hunts", and during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries it was known for its windmills, which, sadly, have all now disappeared.
On 1 January 1860, the city of Paris was enlarged by annexing neighboring communes. On that occasion, most of the commune of Montrouge was annexed to Paris, forming what is now called Petit-Montrouge, in the 14th arrondissement of Paris. The remainder of Montrouge was preserved as an independent town.