The Village of Mayville is in the Town of Chautauqua, and is the county seat of Chautauqua County. The Village and Town offices share a building on Main Street, directly across from the Chautauqua County courthouse.
The first settlement in the county was at this location in 1804, and the Village of Mayville was incorporated in 1830. A noted incident in the community's early history came in 1836 when local residents rioted against the Holland Land Company and broke into its office, destroying furniture and papers.
This is also the location where the Pennsylvania Railroad built a train station and pier on the shores of Chautauqua Lake. This location, along with the Jamestown Boat Landing at the South end of the lake, was the main mode of transportation to the rest of the communities around Chautauqua Lake via the large fleet of Steamboats operating before the trolley line was constructed. In modern times the steamboat Chautauqua Belle still operates out of Mayville, running between Point Chautauqua, Chautauqua Institution, and the vessels home port in Mayville.