Limburg is located west of the river Meuse (Dutch Maas), upon which it borders the similarly named Dutch province Limburg. It also borders on the Wallonian province of Liège to the south, with which it also has historical ties. To the north and west are the old territories of the Duchy of Brabant, the Flemish provinces of Flemish Brabant and Antwerp to the west, and the Dutch province of North Brabant to the north.
The province of Limburg takes up an area of 2,414 km² which is divided into three arrondissements (arrondissementen in Dutch) containing 44 municipalities. Among these municipalities are the current capital Hasselt, the early medieval capital Borgloon, Genk, Diepenbeek (home to Hasselt University), and Tongeren, the only Roman city in the province and regarded as the oldest city of Belgium.
The municipality of Voeren is geographically detached from Limburg and the rest of Flanders, with the Netherlands to the north and the Walloon province of Liège to the south. This municipality was established by the municipal reform of 1977 and on 1 January 2008 with its six villages had a total population of 4,207. Its total area is 50.63 km².