Kirby Underdale is a village and civil parish in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It is situated approximately north of Pocklington town centre and lies north of the main A166 road from York to Driffield.
The civil parish is formed by the village of Kirby Underdale and the hamlets of Garrowby, Painsthorpe and Uncleby. According to the UK census of 2011, Kirby Underdale parish had a population of 125, a decrease on the UK census of 2001 figure of 129.
In Baines' 1823 History, Directory and Gazetteer of the County of York, Kirby Underwood village and parish was listed as "Kirby Guderdale", and was in the Wapentake of Buckrose. All Saints' Church and its benefice was in the patronage of King George IV. Population at the time was 385, which included two farmers, one of whom was a butcher, a blacksmith, a grocer, and a carpenter. Included in the parish and its population was the hamlet of Garraby, 1 mile to the southwest, with two farmers and Sir F. L. Wood.
Sir Francis Lindley Wood of Garraby House and Hickleton Hall was lord of the manor and owner of most parish land, and provided a schoolmaster to teach poor parish children at Uncleby, one mile to the north of Kirby. One mile farther to the north was the parish hamlet of Hanging Crimson, and 1 mile to the south-east, that of Painsthorpe, where lived Rear-Admiral Charles Richardson. Population by 1840 was 293, with parish occupations that included twenty-one farmers, two wheelwrights, two shopkeepers, a tailor, a woodman, and a gamekeeper. Further residents were a schoolmaster and schoolmistress, a parish clerk, a yeoman, and the parish incumbent at the rectory.
Kirby Underdale was originally an ancient parish in Buckrose Wapentake in the East Riding of Yorkshire. In 1866 Kirby Underdale, which had no townships (although it had a number of hamlets listed above), became a civil parish. In 1894 it became part of the Pocklington Rural District of the East Riding. The parish originally covered an area of over 5,000 acres, but in 1935 almost two-thirds of its area was transferred to the neighbouring parish of Thixendale. Thixendale parish was transferred to Norton Rural District in 1935, but Kirby Underdale remained in Pocklington Rural District.
In 1974 most of what had been the East Riding of Yorkshire was joined with the northern part of Lincolnshire to became a new English county named Humberside. The urban and rural districts of the former counties were abolished and Humberside was divided into non-metropolitan districts. The new organization did not meet with the pleasure of the local citizenry and Humberside was wound up in 1996. The area north of the River Humber was separated into two "unitary authorities"—Kingston-upon-Hull covering the former City of Hull and its closest environs, and the less urban section which, once again, named itself the East Riding of Yorkshire.