The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic (Qazaq Keñestik Socïalïstik Respwblïkası; , Kazakhskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika) abbreviated to KSSR (Russian: КССР, tr. KSSR), also known as the Kazakh SSR, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union (USSR).
At in area, it was the second largest republic in the USSR, after the Russian SFSR. Its capital was Alma-Ata (today known as Almaty). Today it is the independent state of Kazakhstan in Central Asia. During its existence it was led by the Communist Party of the Kazakh SSR.
The country is named after the Kazakh people, Turkic-speaking former nomads who sustained a powerful khanate in the region before Russian and then Soviet domination. The Soviet Union's spaceport, now known as the Baikonur Cosmodrome, was located in this republic at Tyuratam, and the secret town of Leninsk (now known as Baikonur) was constructed to accommodate its personnel.