Kalawao County is a county located in the U.S. state of Hawaii. As of the 2010 census, the population was 90, making it the second-least populous county in the United States. The county is on the Kalaupapa or Makanalua Peninsula, on the north coast of the island of . The small peninsula of Kalaupapa is isolated from the rest of Molokai by sea cliffs over a quarter-mile high—the only land access is a mule trail.
Kalawao County does not have the functions of other Hawaii counties. It is a judicial district of Maui County, which includes the rest of the island of Molokai. The county has no elected government. It is administered by the Hawaii Department of Health, and the only county statutes that apply to Kalawao County directly are on matters of health.