Johnston Atoll, also known as Kalama Atoll to Native Hawaiians, is an unincorporated territory of the United States currently administered by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) of the Department of the Interior as part of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument. The islands are visited annually by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Public entry is only by special-use permit and generally restricted to scientists and educators.
For nearly 70 years, the atoll was under the control of the American military. In that time it was used as a bird sanctuary, as a naval refueling depot, as an airbase, for nuclear and biological weapons testing, for space recovery, as a secret missile base, and as a chemical weapon and Agent Orange storage and disposal site. These activities left the area environmentally contaminated and remediation and monitoring continue. In 2004 the U.S. military base was closed and control was handed over to civilian authorities of the United States Government.
How places in Johnston Atoll are organized
All places in Johnston Atoll
Further information on historical place organization in Johnston Atoll