Hyde is a town in the Metropolitan Borough of Tameside, Greater Manchester, England. As of the 2001 census, the town had a population of 31,253. Historically in Cheshire, it is northeast of Stockport, west of Glossop and east of Manchester.
Newton Hall was present in the 13th century. The area formed a township of the parish of Stockport, St Mary. Its name is derived from the Hide, a measure of land for taxation purposes, taken to be that area of land necessary to support a peasant family. In later times it was taken to be equivalent to 120 acres (0.5 km²). In the late 18th century the area that was to become the town centre was no more than a cluster houses known as Red Pump Street. Gee Cross was much larger and 'Hyde' was still only used to refer to the estates of Hyde Hall on the banks of the Tame. Altogether there were only 3,500 inhabitants in the district in 1801. The town is largely a creation of the 19th century and the Industrial Revolution.
The population of Hyde increased due to the success of the cotton mills during the Industrial Revolution of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, at one stage there were 40 working mills. By 1872 only 27 remained, Half of the remaining mills closed between 1921 and 1939 and there is only 1 working mill in the town today. There were many mill owning families, including the Sidebotham, Hibbert and Horsfield families. The main employers in the mills were the Ashton family who successfully ran a combined spinning and weaving company. Most mills concentrated on one process only. The Ashton family built Hyde Chapel on Stockport Road, Gee Cross. The Ashton Brothers' Mill has recently been demolished to make way for a housing estate.
St George's Church was built in 1832 as a chapel of ease to St Mary's, Stockport. It was built at the instigation of John Hyde Clarke of Hyde Hall and was the first Church of England place of worship in the town. St George's became the parish church of part of Hyde township in 1842. Later additions include the lychgate, boathouse by the canal, hearse house, parish rooms and numerous vicarages. The church has a tower housing eight bells and a clock.
The Peak Forest Canal was constructed through Hyde from Ashton-under-Lyne to Woodley, Romiley and Marple. Captain Clarke's Bridge, originally named Wood End Canal Bridge is situated at the end of Woodend Lane. The bridge was erected before Captain Clarke rose to prominence and therefore probably became known as Captain Clarke's bridge after he retired and resided there.
There was also a coal mine, known as Hyde Colliery, in the town and in January 1889 an explosion there killed 23 miners. There was an enquiry held the following month at the town hall. See http://www.cotswan.com/edward_jackson.htm for an account of part of the enquiry. The following month Ardwick AFC, modern day Manchester City, played Newton Heath, modern day Manchester United, under floodlights at Belle Vue to raise money for the victims' families. The game was watched by 10,000 people and this was the first floodlit match played by either side.
During the 1960s, Myra Hindley and Ian Brady were arrested in their home on the Hattersley estate in Hyde after police found the body of 17-year-old Edward Evans in the house. At their trial they were found guilty of murdering Evans as well as two other children whose bodies were found buried on Saddleworth Moor several miles away. One of these victims had been killed at Brady and Hindley's house on Wardle Brook Avenue. They later confessed to killing two more children. The house on Wardle Brook Avenue was demolished so that it could never become a sightseeing objective.
Hyde Town Hall in 1965, was the place where moors killers Myra Hindley and Ian Brady had their hearing, the hall then had a magistrates' court, a police station, underground prison cells and a police mortuary in the courtyard. Police were to spend many, many hours grilling the pair in the interview rooms on the first floor of the police station.
Britain's most prolific serial killer, Dr Harold Shipman, had his doctor's surgery in the town where he murdered most of his several hundred victims - the first known victim being 86-year-old Sarah Hannah Marsland of Ashton House in Victoria Street on 7 August 1978, the last being Kathleen Grundy of Joel Lane on 24 June 1998. Shipman was originally from Nottingham and had lived in West Yorkshire before moving to Hyde, while Hindley was originally from the Gorton area of Manchester.
In fiction, Hyde is referenced in the BBC drama Life on Mars. In the programme, the character Sam Tyler was said to have transferred from C Division Hyde, to the City Centre, A Division CID. The choice of Hyde is given as a clue that his 1973 self is an alter ego, as in Robert Louis Stevenson's Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde.