Hereford's local water supply contains an unusually high level of naturally occurring fluorine. Because fluoride is used to protect against tooth decay, Hereford earned the title "The Town Without a Toothache".
It is also known as the "Beef Capital of the World" because of the large number of cattle fed in the area. The city is named for the Hereford breed. The local economy is affected significantly by growth in the dairy and ethanol industries.
A rich Western heritage includes the Las Escarbadas ranch house of the XIT Ranch located southwest of Hereford in Deaf Smith County. The restored historic structure can now be seen at the National Ranching Heritage Center at Texas Tech University. The Deaf Smith County Historical Museum at 400 Sampson Street in Hereford offers indoor and outdoor exhibits on the settlement of West Texas.