Goxhill was part of the former South Humberside region.
The village is served by Goxhill railway station, which runs from the town of Barton to the seaside resort of Cleethorpes. The area has been an important centre for clay pantile production since the 18th century and the industry is still represented in the village.
RAF Goxhill was used in the Second World War by the USAAF. The 78th Fighter Group arrived at the station, known officially as 8th Air Force Station No. F-345 on 1 December 1942. The American Units referred to it unofficially as "GoatHill". In 1943 Robert S. Johnson, a US ace pilot of the Second World War, was stationed here.