Gotland (; , older spellings include Gottland or Gothland), Gutland in the local language Gutnish, is a province, county, municipality, and diocese of Sweden. It is Sweden's largest island and the largest island in the Baltic Sea. With its total area of 3,183.7 square kilometers (1,229.2 square miles), the island of Gotland and the other areas of the province of Gotland make up less than one percent of Sweden's total land area. The province includes the small islands of Fårö and Gotska Sandön to the north, as well as the Karlsö Islands (Lilla and Stora) to the west, which are even smaller. The island of Gotland has an area of 2,994 km² (1,156 mi²), whereas the province has 3,183.7 km² (1,229.2 mi²) [3,151 km² (1,217 mi²) of land excluding the lakes and rivers]. The population is 57,221, of which about 22,200 live in Visby, the main town. The island's main sources of income are tourism, agriculture, and concrete production from locally mined limestone.
A DNA study conducted on the 5000 year old skeletal remains of three Middle Neolithic seal hunters from Gotland showed that they were related to modern-day Finns. A farmer from Västergötland on the mainland was found to be closer related to modern-day Mediterraneans. This is consistent with the spread of agricultural peoples from the Middle East at about that time.
Orkneyinga saga was written around 1200 CE by an unknown Icelandic author. The Hversu account is only known to have survived in one single copy in Icelandic Flateyjarbók from 1387 CE, but may have been written earlier. According to Orkneyinga saga, Norwegian rulers were descendants of king Fornjót who "reigned over Gotland, which we now know as Finland and Kvenland". The Hversu account states that a descendant of Fornjót "ruled over Gothland, Kvenland (Kænlandi), and Finland".
Gutasaga contains legends of how the island was settled by Þieluar and populated by his descendants. It also tells that a third of the population had to emigrate and settle in southern Europe, a tradition associated with the migration of the Goths, whose name has the same origin as Gutes, the native name of the people of the island. It later tells that the Gutes voluntarily submitted to the king of Sweden and asserts that the submission was based on mutual agreement, and notes the duties and obligations of the Swedish King and Bishop in relationship to Gotland. It is therefore not only an effort to write down the history of Gotland, but also an effort to assert Gotland's independence from Sweden.
It gives Awair Strabain as the name of the man who arranged the mutually beneficial agreement with the king of Sweden; the event would have taken place before the end of the 9th century, when Wulfstan of Hedeby reported that the island was subject to the Swedes:
Then, after the land of the Burgundians, we had on our left the lands that have been called from the earliest times Blekingey, and Meore, and Eowland, and Gotland, all which territory is subject to the Sweons; and Weonodland was all the way on our right, as far as Weissel-mouth.
The region is considered by some historians to be the original homeland of the Goths.
The city of Visby and rest of the island were governed separately, and a civil war caused by conflicts between the German merchants in Visby and the peasants they traded with in the countryside had to be put down by King Magnus III of Sweden in 1288. In 1361, Valdemar Atterdag of Denmark invaded the island. The Victual Brothers occupied the island in 1394 to set up a stronghold as a headquarters of their own in Visby. At last, Gotland became a fiefdom of the Teutonic Knights, awarded to them on the condition that they expel the piratical Victual Brothers from their fortified sanctuary. An invading army of Teutonic Knights conquered the island in 1398, destroying Visby and driving the Victual Brothers from Gotland. In 1409 Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen of the Teutonic Knights guaranteed peace with the Kalmar Union of Scandinavia by selling the island of Gotland to Queen Margaret of Denmark, Norway and Sweden.
The number of Arab dirhams discovered on the island of Gotland alone is astoundingly high. In the various hoards located around the island, there are more of these silver coins than at any other site in Western Eurasia. The total sum is almost as great as the number that has been unearthed in the entire Muslim world. These coins moved north through trade between Rus merchants and the Abbasid Caliphate, along the Silver-Fur Road, and the money made by Scandinavian merchants would help northern Europe, especially Viking Scandinavia and the Carolingian Empire, as major commercial centers for the next several centuries.
The Mästermyr chest, an important Viking-era artefact, was found in Gotland.
The authority of the landsting was successively eroded after the island was occupied by the Teutonic Order, then sold to Eric of Pomerania and after 1449 ruled by Danish governors. In late medieval times, the ting consisted of twelve representatives for the farmers, free-holders or tenants. Since the Treaty of Brömsebro in 1645, the island has remained under Swedish rule.