Goldthorpe is a village now within the Metropolitan Borough of Barnsley, in South Yorkshire, England. Historically within the West Riding of Yorkshire, it was anciently a small medieval farming village, Goldthorpe is recorded in the Domesday Book and was under the Manor of Bolton upon Dearne which was once owned by Roger de Busli.
Goldthorpe railway station opened in 1988 on the Wakefield Line.
In the early 18th century Barnsley Attorney William Henry Marsden Esquire of nearby Burntwood Hall bought the Lord of the Manor of Bolton on Dearne with Goldthorpe for £10,000 together with over of 1,000 acres of land. Goldthorpe is recorded in the 1761-1767 Inclosure Awards. The Marsden family continued to hold the manor until 1815.
The area is now commonly referred to as the Dearne Valley and was a major coal mining area, but since the closure of the mines in the late 1980s, it has become a deprived economic area. The area to the west of Goldthorpe along the A635 road is known locally as Highgate.