According to the 1881 UK Census the population of Foston was 99. The local council estimates the current population as 50. The nearest settlements are Thornton-le-Clay 0.7 miles (1.1 km) to the west; Bulmer 1.5 miles (2.4 km) to the north; Whitwell-on-the-Hill 1.7 miles (2.7 km) to the east and Barton Hill 1 mile (1.6 km) to the south-east. To the east of the village is Spittal Beck, a tributary of the River Derwent.
The village is the site of a Scheduled monument, this being a medieval settlement and moated monastic grange. In addition to the church, the Rectory and Foston Hall are also Grade II listed buildings.