Its name means Edwin's resting place because King (and Saint) Edwin of Northumbria's body was hidden in the church after he was killed in the Battle of Hatfield Chase, near Doncaster, probably in 633. Edwinstowe is referenced twice in the Domesday Book. Legend has it that Robin Hood married his sweetheart Maid Marian in St Mary's Church.
Thoresby Colliery serves as Edwinstowe's main source of employment. However, since the decline of the British coal industry, tourism is now becoming a major influence on the local economy due to the popularity of the Robin Hood legend and the alleged location of his base at the Major Oak.
There was a post windmill south of the Mansfield Road with a small box-style roundhouse. It was driven by 2 common sails and 2 double patent sails.